Ten years of urban air quality management in india findings of a recent study across five cities
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 30

Ten Years of Urban Air Quality Management in India: Findings of a Recent Study Across Five Cities PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 53 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Ten Years of Urban Air Quality Management in India: Findings of a Recent Study Across Five Cities. Presented at National Workshop on Urban Air Quality and Integrated Traffic Management Karachi, 13 th – 14 th September 2006. 400. 350. 300. 250. 200. concentration in µ g/m. 150. 100.

Download Presentation

Ten Years of Urban Air Quality Management in India: Findings of a Recent Study Across Five Cities

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Ten years of urban air quality management in india findings of a recent study across five cities

Ten Years of Urban Air Quality Management in India: Findings of a Recent Study Across Five Cities

Presented at National Workshop on Urban Air Quality and Integrated Traffic Management

Karachi, 13th– 14th September 2006

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


Ten years of urban air quality management in india findings of a recent study across five cities

400

350

300

250

200

concentration in µg/m

150

100

50

0

Pune

Seoul

Tokyo

Manila

Osaka

Busan

Jakarta

Kolkata

Bangkok

Mumbai

Colombo

Shanghai

New Delhi

Singapore

Hong Kong

Chongqing

Air Quality Levels 2000-2001

SO2 Limit = 50 µg/m3 (WHO, 1999)

SPM Limit = 90 µg/m3 (WHO, 1979)

Source: Information collected from national and local government agencies through CAI-Asia network, 2003, detailed sources

available from CAI-Asia Secretariat

SPM

SO2

NO2 Limit = 40 µg/m3 (WHO, 1999)

PM10 Limit = 50 µg/m3 (USEPA, 1997)

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank

PM10

NO2


Background

Background

  • Very high levels of urban air pollution, especially particulate pollution, in Indian cities in the 1990’s.

  • Independent analyses estimated that it could be responsible for significant health damage.

  • A series of policy interventions followed, in which civil society and judiciary have played a major role (Delhi has set an example)

  • A number of other highly polluted cities to prepare “action plans” for addressing urban air pollution.

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


Context

Context

  • On-going debate among air quality experts about the exact impacts of specific measures that have already been taken, and by how much the urban air quality has improved as a result.

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


Objectives

Objectives

  • To strengthen, within the limits of the available data and analytical methods, the understanding of factors influencing ambient air quality in different cities so as to assist in the process of formulating future city-level strategies and action plans for addressing urban air pollution.

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


City selection

City Selection

  • Five major cities—Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, and Hyderabadall with a population of more than 5 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area. These cities,

    • cover a wide range in the levels of PM pollution;

    • cover different geographical locations (north, south, east, and west), diverse climatic conditions, and both coastal and inland cities;

    • have relatively more extensive data available;

    • represent a sample that has had policy interventions; and

    • are also on the list of the cities that have been asked to develop “action plans” to address PM pollution.

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


Pm averages 2002

PM Averages (2002)

NEERI Data

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


What efforts have been made to address urban air pollution

What efforts have been made to address urban air pollution ?

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


Delhi chronology of key actions

Delhi: Chronology of Key Actions

  • 1994-95: Transport

    • Introduction of Catalytic Converters and Unleaded petrol

  • 1996: Transport & Industry

    • Fuel Quality: 0.5% S diesel introduced

    • CNG vehicles and catalytic converters for government petrol vehicles, excluding public transport introduced (but unsuccessful)

    • Closure of 168 hazardous industries, including stone crushers completed

    • Lower Sulphur content in coal (0.4% S) and oil for industrial use (1.8%) introduced

  • 1997: Industry

    • Relocation of 513 industries

    • 337 hazardous category industries shifted (total of 1160 industries closed or relocated including hot mix plants, arc induction furnaces, brick kilns)

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


Ten years of urban air quality management in india findings of a recent study across five cities

  • 1998: Transport

    • Supply of only premix petrol in all petrol filling stations to two stroke engine vehicles; ban on supply of loose 2T oils

    • Phasing out/ban on old commercial/transport vehicles (>15 yrs)

    • Start of major construction program: flyovers plus the Delhi metro

  • 1999: Transport

    • Registration of only EURO II 3-wheelers and diesel taxis

    • Restricting the plying of goods vehicles during the day

    • Diesel sulphur reduced to 0.25%

  • 2000: Transport, Industry & Urban

    • Diesel and gasoline sulphur reduced to 0.05% in selected outlets

    • Replacement of all pre-1990 3-wheelers and taxis with new vehicles on clean fuels

    • All private 4-wheeled vehicles to conform to Euro II

    • Buses more than 8 Yrs phased out or to ply on CNG

    • The three coal based power plants to switch over to beneficiated coal

    • Piped NG by March 2000 to 1311 domestic, 9 small, and 3 large commercial establishments

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


Ten years of urban air quality management in india findings of a recent study across five cities

  • 2001: Transport, Industry & Urban

    • Replacement of all post-1990 3-wheelers and taxis with new vehicles on clean fuels

    • Sulphur content in diesel further reduced to 0.05% in select outlets

    • Number of CNG vehicles as follows: 14000 3-w; 2200 taxis; 400 buses; 250 RTVs; 9500 private (26350 total)

    • Piped NG by March to 2821 domestic, 15 small , and 5 large commercial establishments

    • Hazardous Industry closure continues: total of 3538 closed

  • 2002: Transport & Urban

    • 94 CNG stations setup up to March

    • All diesel buses phased-out / converted to CNG.

    • Number of CNG vehicles as follows: 35678 3-w; 4816 taxis; 4231 buses; 2165 RTVs; 10350 private (57240 total)

    • Piped NG by March to 4111 domestic, 37 small , and 5 large commercial establishments

    • 16340 non-destined good vehicles turned away from entering Delhi between July and November

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


Kolkata chronology of key actions

Kolkata: Chronology of Key Actions

  • 1995: Industry

    • Air polluting industries directed to install air pollution control devices

  • 1996: Transport

    • Fuel Quality: 0.5% S diesel mandated

  • 1997: Industry

    • Siting policy for red category (hazardous) industry was implemented

  • 1998: Transport

    • Low smoke 2T oil for two-stroke engine vehicles mandated

    • 0.25% S diesel mandated in Kolkata Metropolitan Area

  • 1999: Transport

    • Pre-mixed 2T oil for two-wheelers mandated

  • 2000: Transport

    • Diesel sulphur reduced to 0.25% for all of Kolkata

  • 2001: Transport & Industry

    • Low sulphur petrol and diesel (0.05%) mandated

    • The use of cleaner fuels made mandatory in industrial boilers

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


Mumbai chronology of key actions

Mumbai: Chronology of Key Actions

  • 1996: Transport & Industry

    • Fuel Quality: 0.5% S diesel mandated

    • Textile industries decline started after the strikes of textile workers

  • 1997: Transport & Urban

    • CNG conversion of taxis started

    • Construction of large number of flyovers started

  • 1998: Transport

    • Low smoke 2T oil for two-stroke engine vehicles mandated

    • CNG conversion of taxis on a large scale

  • 1999: Transport

    • Pre-mixed 2T oil for two-wheelers mandated

  • 2000: Transport & Industry

    • Diesel sulphur reduced to 0.25%

    • Conversion of a number of industries to natural gas

  • 2001: Transport & Industry

    • Low sulphur petrol and diesel (0.05%) mandated

  • 2002: Transport

    • Age-based phase out of taxis and 3-wheelers unless converted to LPG/CNG

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


Hyderabad chronology of key actions

Hyderabad: Chronology of Key Actions

  • 1996: Transport

    • Fuel Quality: 0.5% S diesel mandated

  • 1998: Transport

    • Low smoke 2T oil for two-stroke engine vehicles mandated

  • 1999: Transport

    • Pre-mixed 2T oil for two-wheelers mandated

  • 2000: Transport & Urban

    • Diesel sulphur reduced to 0.25%

    • Construction of flyovers started

  • 2001: Transport & Urban

    • Construction of by-pass roads for heavy vehicles started

    • Widening of roads undertaken

  • 2002: Transport

    • Stopping of permit to new autorickshaws

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


Chennai chronology of key actions

Chennai: Chronology of Key Actions

  • 1996: Transport

    • Fuel Quality: 0.5% S diesel mandated

  • 1998: Transport

    • Low smoke 2T oil for two-stroke engine vehicles mandated

  • 1999: Transport

    • Pre-mixed 2T oil for two-wheelers mandated

  • 2000: Transport

    • Diesel sulphur reduced to 0.25%

  • 2001: Transport

    • Low sulphur diesel & petrol (0.05%) mandated

  • 2002: Transport & Urban

    • Entry of old buses into the center of the city prohibited, and old buses diverted to new bus terminal in the outskirts

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


What were the effects of those efforts on air quality

What were the effects of those efforts on air quality ?

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


Annual average rspm concentration

Annual Average RSPM Concentration

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


Delhi rspm by area ann avgs

Delhi: RSPM by Area (Ann. Avgs.)

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


What are the health impacts of changes in air quality

What are the health impacts of changes in air quality ?

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


Changes in rspm levels

Changes in RSPM levels

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


Health benefits of changes in rspm

Health benefits of changes in RSPM

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


Ten years of urban air quality management in india findings of a recent study across five cities

What are the key factors that affect air quality and need to be considered in strategies and action plans ?

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


Relative contribution of sources to pm2 5 in 2001

Relative Contribution of Sources to PM2.5 in 2001

Source: ESMAP 2004

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


Relative contribution of sources

Relative Contribution of Sources

The results indicated that there was no single dominant source in Delhi, Kolkata, and Mumbai, but rather three principal sources of particulate air pollution: vehicle exhaust, re-suspended road dust, and solid fuels. The use of solid fuels in more pronounced in cities with colder winters.

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


Delhi role of meteorological parameters

Delhi: Role of Meteorological Parameters

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


Chennai role of meteorological parameters

Chennai: Role of Meteorological Parameters

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


6 what do the findings of this study tell

6. What do the findings of this study tell ?

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


Concluding remarks

Concluding Remarks

  • RSPM, the main pollutant of public health concern, fell between 1993 and 2002. Clearly, the interventions undertaken had some effect !

  • This decline in RSPM levels might have led to nearly 13,000 fewer cases of premature deaths and much greater reductions in the number of cases of respiratory illness annually in the five cities by 2002, than in the early 1990s.

  • Despite substantial past progress the levels of RSPM are the highest and dangerously above the national standards in the northern cities of Delhi and Kolkata, especially in winter.

  • Given that there is no established threshold for health impacts from exposure to RSPM, all cities will gain substantial health benefits from further reductions.

  • Reductions in RSPM concentrations have been achieved through a combination of measures targeting industry, transport, and better urban planning / development. This is an important lesson for developing “action plans”.

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


Sector wise summary of key actions across the cities

Sector-wise summary of key actions across the cities

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


Thank you all

Thank You All!

The full report entitled

For a Breath of Fresh Air: Ten Years of Progress and Challenges in Urban Air Quality Management in India 1993-2002 can be accessed at http://www.worldbank.org/sarurbanair

Sameer Akbar, The World Bank


  • Login