Ethnic and National Identification as Determinants of In-Group and Out-Group Evaluations:
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Ethnic and National Identification as Determinants of In-Group and Out-Group Evaluations: The Basque Case. Borja Martinovic, Maykel Verkuyten & Jeroen Weesie Utrecht University, the Netherlands CRONEM, 13 June 2007. Introduction.

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Borja Martinovic, Maykel Verkuyten & Jeroen Weesie Utrecht University, the Netherlands

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Borja martinovic maykel verkuyten jeroen weesie utrecht university the netherlands

Ethnic and National Identification as Determinants of In-Group and Out-Group Evaluations: The Basque Case

Borja Martinovic, Maykel Verkuyten & Jeroen Weesie

Utrecht University, the Netherlands

CRONEM, 13 June 2007


Introduction

Introduction

  • This study distinguishes between national and ethnic identification

  • The relationship between the two types of identification and the evaluation of in-group and multiple out-groups is examined

  • The aim is contribute to the further understanding of identification and group evaluation processes in a real-life and politically tense context.


Spanish basque context

Spanish-Basque context

  • The case of interest is Basque community in Spain

  • For people who identify as Basque, Basques are seen as the in-group, and Andalusians, Catalans and Spaniards as out-groups

  • For people who identify as Spanish, the Spaniards are seen as the in-group, and Andalusians, Catalans and Basques as out-groups


Theory

Theory

  • SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY

  • Identification with a group influences intergroup behaviour

  • In-group positivity principle

  • Out-group derogation

  • Pro in-group attitudes are not necessarily related to anti out-group attitudes

  • Group evaluations need to be understood in their social context


Hypotheses

Hypotheses

  • H1: A direct positive relationship between group identification and in-group evaluation

  • H2: A positive relationship between in-group identification and the evaluation of similar out-groups

  • H3: A negative relationship between in-group identification and the evaluation of threatening out-groups

    • H3a: A direct negative association between Spanish identification and the evaluation of Catalans

    • H3b: For other three groups Basque nationalism functions as a mediator between in-group identification and out-group evaluations


Borja martinovic maykel verkuyten jeroen weesie utrecht university the netherlands

Spanish identification

Evaluation of Spaniards

+

+

Evaluation of Andalusians

Basque ethnic nationalism

Basque ethnic nationalism

Evaluation of Catalans

+

+

+

Basque identification

Evaluation of Basques

+


Data and participants

Data and participants

  • 774 secondary school students from 25 schools in the Basque Autonomous Community

  • 14-21 years of age (M=16)

  • 50.9% females and 49.1% males


Measures dv

Measures: DV

  • Group evaluation:

    Spaniards, Basques, Andalusians and Catalans

  • Pre-test survey  37 respondents from Spain ranked Spanish sub-groups according to how prototypically Spanish they are

  • Castilians and Andalusians most prototypical; Basques and Catalans most atypical

  • No evaluation of Castilians in the data  focus on Andalusians

  • Stereotype valence: 10 positive and 10 negative traits


Measures iv

Measures: IV

  • Basque identification:

    6 questions measured on a scale from 1 to 4 about feeling Basque and belonging to the Basque group

  • Spanish identification:

    The same 6 questions with reference to Spanish identity


Measures iv 2

Measures: IV (2)

  • Basque ethnic nationalism:

    8 questions, measured on a scale from 1 to 4, about wanting an independent and ethnically pure Basque state

    Cronbach’s alpha=.90


Analysis

Analysis

  • Structural equation modelling

  • Mplus software

  • No test of the measurement model due to the modest sample size and high alphas

  • A fair number of missing values in questions about identification and Basque nationalism Full-information maximum likelihood estimation


Descriptive results

Descriptive results

  • Basque identification (M=3.31) is significantly higher than Spanish identification (M=2.11)

  • Average scores on Basque identification are significantly above the midpoint, while Spanish identification is significantly below it

  • Basques are the most positively evaluated group (M=3.09), followed by Spaniards (M=.80), Andalusians (M=.74) and Catalans (M=-.40)


Borja martinovic maykel verkuyten jeroen weesie utrecht university the netherlands

** p<.01

* p<.05


Borja martinovic maykel verkuyten jeroen weesie utrecht university the netherlands

Spanish identification

Evaluation of Spaniards

.18***

.03

-.14***

-.49***

Evaluation of Andalusians

-.05***

Basque ethnic nationalism

Basque ethnic nationalism

-.07***

Evaluation of Catalans

.05*

.59***

.03

Basque identification

Evaluation of Basques

.16***


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • The findings show a clear positive relationship between identification and in-group evaluation, which is in line with the ‘in-group positivity principle’

  • The relationship between identification and out-group evaluation is more complex

    • There is no association between in-group identification and the evaluation of similar out-groups

    • The association is negative for threatening out-groups, and it is mediated by ideological notions, such as nationalism


Conclusion 2

Conclusion (2)

  • Social psychology has paid relatively little attention to dual identities

  • Multiple out-groups rarely researched

  • Most studies are of experimental nature

     This article examined dual identities and multiple out-group evaluations in a real-life intergroup context!


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