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Japanese Gas Industry and Its Efforts in Reducing CO2 Emission. December 10, 2004 Hiroshi Ozaki The Japan Gas Association. Contents. Japanese gas industry and its CO2 Emission Target Benchmark as Performance Assessment Benchmark as Baseline for Evaluation of Projects

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japanese gas industry and its efforts in reducing co2 emission

Japanese Gas Industry and Its Efforts in Reducing CO2 Emission

December 10, 2004

Hiroshi Ozaki

The Japan Gas Association

contents
Contents
  • Japanese gas industry and its

CO2 Emission Target

  • Benchmark as Performance Assessment
  • Benchmark as Baseline for Evaluation of Projects
    • emission reduction on customers’ site
    • emission from Use of Grid Power
japanese gas industry an overview

Japanese Gas Industry and Its CO2 Emission Target

Japanese gas industry – an overview
  • No. of utilities: 227
    • diverse in size of operation
  • Scale of operation
    • Gas sold: 29 billion m3 (top 10: 85% )
    • Customers: 27 million
    • Vertically integrated: from supply to retail
    • 90% LNG, 10% petroleum-based
co2 emission target

Japanese Gas Industry and Its CO2 Emission Target

CO2 Emission Target

To reduce CO2 emission from our operation

  • Target

23g-CO2/m3 (2010)

73g-CO2/m3 (1990)

  • Means
    • Conversion to

natural gas (LNG)

    • Energy saving at

LNG terminals

relativity

Benchmark as Performance Assessment

Relativity
  • Emission rate (CO2/product or service) is more useful than absolute emission quantity.
    • To identify solutions
    • To find direction
benchmark for the japanese gas utilities

Benchmark as Performance Assessment

Benchmark for the Japanese Gas Utilities
  • Benchmark : CO2 emission/m3
    • comparison within class
    • single benchmark not equitable
  • Considerations for design
    • size
    • type of gas
    • subject facilities
    • geographic factors, etc.
stringency level

Benchmark as Performance Assessment

Stringency Level

Higher benchmark levels

  • more effective to start at an easy level and raise the level

Initial benchmark levels

Achieve

Review

Verify

our approach

Benchmark as Baseline for Evaluation of Projects

Our approach
  • Focus on demand side emissions
  • Enhancing efficient utilization (energy company’s mission)
    • Conversion to natural gas from other fuels
    • Introducing energy-efficient equipment
      • Ex: CHP (combined heat & power)
    • ESCO business
requirements

Benchmark as Baseline for Evaluation of Projects

Requirements
  • Criteria for Evaluation: comparison with baseline
  • Benchmark as baseline :
    • easy to use and objective
    • reflective of reality
issues to be considered

Area X

AreaY

CO2 emission factor

a

b

c

d

e

new

project

existing facilities

Benchmark as Baseline for Evaluation of Projects

Issues to be considered
  • Broadnessvs.Accuracy
    • diversity ofbackground

affects baseline

    • applicable conditions are

vital for choice of good projects

Benchmark?

designing a benchmark as baseline

Benchmark as Baseline for Evaluation of Projects

Designing a Benchmark as Baseline
  • Steps towards benchmark
    • to analyse & identify the background
    • to verify applicability of benchmark
    • to examine stringency level
  • Database of project baselines may help
determination of emission from use of grid power

Determination of Emission from Use of Grid Power

Average Emission Factor (AEF)

and

Marginal Emission Factor (MEF)

grid power viewed from co2 emission

Determination of Emission from Use of Grid Power

Grid Power viewed from CO2 Emission

CO2 emission

Thermal

Nuclear

Hydro

Demand side

Supply side

  • Emission at generation site only
  • Power supplied from different sources
  • Power distributed through grid
co2 emission from power consumption attribution

Determination of Emission from Use of Grid Power

CO2 Emission from Power Consumption- attribution

1. Calculate at generation source only: EU-ETS

  • Costs passed through to users: same as AEF

2. Calculate demand side emission (virtual and indirect) by Average Emission Factor (AEF)

  • Proportionally distributed to all customers
  • Formula: CO2=Power consumed X AEF

3. Calculate emission reduction

by Marginal Emission Factor (MEF)

  • Effect of power saving on reduced CO2 emission
  • Formula: Reduced CO2=Power saved X MEF
estimating emission on demand side

Determination of Emission from Use of Grid Power

Estimating Emission on Demand Side
  • AEF used to estimate total emission on demand side
  • CO2 emission distributed proportionally to all users

Customer 1

Thermal

Customer 2

Hydro

Customer N

Nuclear

Wind

Supply side

Demand side

evaluating reduced emission on demand side

Determination of Emission from Use of Grid Power

Evaluating Reduced Emission on Demand Side
  • MEF used to calculate emission reduction by power saving
  • MEF: Emission factor of Power source displaced or delayed by power saving

reduction

Customer 1

Thermal

Customer 2

Hydro

Customer N

Nuclear

Wind

Supply side

Demand side

choice of emission factor

Determination of Emission from Use of Grid Power

Choice of Emission Factor
  • AEF and MEF not clearly distinguished
      • Emission volume by AEF
      • Reduced emission by MEF
  • AEF used for being conservative ?
proper evaluation using mef

Hydro

Nuclear

Wind

Hydro

Nuclear

Wind

Thermal

Thermal

Hydro

Nuclear

Wind

Hydro

Nuclear

Wind

Thermal

Thermal

Determination of Emission from Use of Grid Power

Proper Evaluation Using MEF
  • Specify power replaced or reduced power sources through power saving and renewable projects.
  • MEF MUST BE USED for proper evaluation.
using aef for evaluating reduced emission a road to dire consequences

Hydro

Nuclear

Wind

Hydro

Nuclear

Wind

Thermal

Thermal

Hydro

Nuclear

Wind

Hydro

Nuclear

Wind

Thermal

Thermal

Determination of Emission from Use of Grid Power

Using AEF for Evaluating Reduced Emission- a road to dire consequences?
  • Emission reduction by power saving on demand side equally translated into all power sources
  • Erroneous evaluation of power saving effects and renewable projects

Discourages Promising CO2 Reduction Projects

emission factors and conservatism
AEF and conservatism are irrelevant

Appropriate MEF

Power increment or

decrement

×

Determination of Emission from Use of Grid Power

Emission Factors and Conservatism

New Projects

conservative

Power saving

AEF?

conservative

Power consumption

increased

?

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