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Deforestation: PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Deforestation:. Why it happens and what to do about it John Hudson, DFID UNFCC Workshop on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries Rome, 30 August to 1 September 2006. The presentation…. Deforestation is not new It is complicated – many causes and interrelationships

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Why it happens and what to do about it

John Hudson, DFID

UNFCC Workshop on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries

Rome, 30 August to 1 September 2006

The presentation

The presentation…

  • Deforestation is not new

  • It is complicated – many causes and interrelationships

  • Some specific examples

  • What to do?

It s not new

It’s not new

  • Changes in nature and extent of forests are not new

  • Forests have ebbed and flowed during recorded and geological history

  • It is the speed of change in some countries that is new

  • As natural forests decline, managed forests, plantations and trees on farms replace them (see next slide)

Changes in quality and quantity of forests over time

Changes in quality and quantity of forests over time

Many causes

Many causes…

  • Direct causes – e.g. shifting agriculture, commercial agriculture, plantations, infrastructure

  • Underlying causes – e.g. poverty; population pressure; market and policy distortions; insecure/unclear tenure, failures of governance

  • Predisposing factors – biophysical characteristics, social upheavals

Some crude generalisations

Some crude generalisations

  • More people, less forest, but…

  • Higher per capita income, greater deforestation, but…

  • Higher farm prices (trade liberalisation, subsidies, devaluations) increase deforestation

  • Higher off-farm employment and higher wages decrease deforestation

More generalisations

More generalisations…

  • Greater access (more roads) increases deforestation

  • Mixed evidence about logging – but excess processing capacity drives over-harvesting

  • Deforestation is greater in open access regimes – property rights matter

Some specific examples indonesia

Some specific examples: Indonesia

  • 24% of forest cover (28 m ha) lost 1990-2005

  • Direct causes: logging (much illegal); conversion to oil palm, timber and coffee (planned & spontaneous); small scale agriculture; fire associated with land conversion

  • Underlying causes: population pressure and transmigration policy; contested land tenure; corruption; demand for timber and excess processing capacity; failures of capital markets (no due diligence); competition for power following decentralisation.

Some specific examples brazil

Some specific examples: Brazil

  • 26,000 km2 of Brazilian Amazon lost last year

  • Direct causes: conversion to agriculture (pasture, soya); colonisation and subsistence agriculture;

  • Underlying causes: demand for commodities (beef, soya); unclear and contested property rights; spontaneous colonisation and planned settlements

Some specific examples africa

Some specific examples: Africa

  • Accounts for about half of global deforestation

  • Small-scale agriculture accounts for about 60%

  • Dry forests being converted at a rate 50% higher than rainforests

  • Logging is an important factor in parts of West and Central Africa

  • Demand for wood rarely drives deforestation on other than a local scale

What to do

What to do?

  • Multi-sectoral approach

  • Clearer, more secure property rights

  • Better governance and regulation

  • Payments for environmental services

Multi sectoral approach

Multi-sectoral approach

  • External factors drive deforestation – narrow forest sector solutions won’t work

  • Need a multi-sectoral approach – lots of policies and actions that deal with the complexity

  • But these haven’t worked well in the past

    • Sectoral entities don’t cooperate

    • Economic policy makers rarely think about forests

    • Politically unattractive – many small steps

Property rights

Property rights

  • Unclear and contested property rights are a major underlying cause of deforestation in most places

  • Reforms challenge established power relations, are politically sensitive and usually slow to fix

  • But there have been enormous changes in some parts of the world in the last 15 years or so

Better governance and regulation

Better governance and regulation

  • Forests often associated with deep seated systems of political patronage, corruption, inconsistent legal frameworks, weak law enforcement and poverty

  • Must be resolved by wider governance reforms as well as specific actions related to forests

  • Such actions more likely to succeed if reinforced by markets that discriminate in favour of products from legal and well managed sources

Payments for environmental services

Payments for environmental services

  • Experience in market / compensation based approaches is growing – but still very limited in countries where deforestation is greatest

  • Lack of property rights and high transaction costs pose problems

  • Carbon is biggest potential market

  • But how would payments to countries affect the behaviour of individual farmers and companies?

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