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Organska kemija predavanja

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16. Figure Number: 05-01-01UN Title: Molecule with Asymmetric Carbon Caption: A molecule with an asymmetric carbon is chiral. Notes: Carbon atoms which have four different things attached to them are asymmetric, or chiral. They are not superimposable with their mirror images.Figure Number: 05-01-01UN Title: Molecule with Asymmetric Carbon Caption: A molecule with an asymmetric carbon is chiral. Notes: Carbon atoms which have four different things attached to them are asymmetric, or chiral. They are not superimposable with their mirror images.

17. Figure Number: 05-01-10UN Title: Chiral and Achiral Molecules Caption: Structures of a chiral molecule, an achiral molecule, and mirror images of the two. Notes: A chiral molecule has a nonsuperimposable mirror image. An achiral molecule has a superimposable mirror image. Figure Number: 05-01-10UN Title: Chiral and Achiral Molecules Caption: Structures of a chiral molecule, an achiral molecule, and mirror images of the two. Notes: A chiral molecule has a nonsuperimposable mirror image. An achiral molecule has a superimposable mirror image.

19. Figure Number: 05-01-14UN Title: Stereocenters Caption: Five stereocenters depicted in three molecules. Notes: A stereocenter is an atom at which the interchange of two groups yields two different nonsuperimposable molecules. Asymmetric carbons are stereocenters and so are carbons which hold attached substituents in E or Z isomeric configurations.Figure Number: 05-01-14UN Title: Stereocenters Caption: Five stereocenters depicted in three molecules. Notes: A stereocenter is an atom at which the interchange of two groups yields two different nonsuperimposable molecules. Asymmetric carbons are stereocenters and so are carbons which hold attached substituents in E or Z isomeric configurations.

20. Figure Number: 05-01-41UN Title: Plane-Polarized Light Caption: Plane-polarized light oscillates only in a single plane. Notes: Plane-polarized light is produced by passing normal light through a polarizer such as a polarized lens or Nicol prism.Figure Number: 05-01-41UN Title: Plane-Polarized Light Caption: Plane-polarized light oscillates only in a single plane. Notes: Plane-polarized light is produced by passing normal light through a polarizer such as a polarized lens or Nicol prism.

23. Figure Number: 05-01-44UN Title: Achiral Compound in Plane-Polarized Light Caption: An achiral compound does not rotate the plane of polarized light. It is optically inactive. Notes: When plane-polarized light passes through a solution of achiral molecules, the light emerges from the solution with its direction of polarization unchanged, because there is no asymmetry in the molecules.Figure Number: 05-01-44UN Title: Achiral Compound in Plane-Polarized Light Caption: An achiral compound does not rotate the plane of polarized light. It is optically inactive. Notes: When plane-polarized light passes through a solution of achiral molecules, the light emerges from the solution with its direction of polarization unchanged, because there is no asymmetry in the molecules.

24. Figure Number: 05-01-45UN Title: Chiral Compound in Plane-Polarized Light Caption: A chiral compound rotates the plane of polarized light in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction. Notes: If one enantiomer rotates the plane of polarized light in a clockwise direction, its mirror image will rotate the plane of polarized light by an equal amount but in the opposite direction.Figure Number: 05-01-45UN Title: Chiral Compound in Plane-Polarized Light Caption: A chiral compound rotates the plane of polarized light in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction. Notes: If one enantiomer rotates the plane of polarized light in a clockwise direction, its mirror image will rotate the plane of polarized light by an equal amount but in the opposite direction.

25. Figure Number: 05-02 Title: Schematic of a Polarimeter Caption: The amount that an optically active compound rotates the plane of polarized light can be measured by a polarimeter. Notes: Because the amount of rotation depends on the wavelength of the light used, the light source for a polarimeter must produce light with a single wavelength.Figure Number: 05-02 Title: Schematic of a Polarimeter Caption: The amount that an optically active compound rotates the plane of polarized light can be measured by a polarimeter. Notes: Because the amount of rotation depends on the wavelength of the light used, the light source for a polarimeter must produce light with a single wavelength.

26. Figure Number: 05-02-05UN Title: Enantiomeric Excess Formula Caption: Calculation of enantiomeric excess for a compound with an optical purity of 40%. Notes: Optical purity and isomeric purity are not the same. A 50/50 mixture of two enantiomers has a 50% isomeric purity, but a zero optical purity or enantiomeric excess. To convert from enantiomeric excess to isomeric purity, divide the percent enantiomeric excess by two and add the result to 50%.Figure Number: 05-02-05UN Title: Enantiomeric Excess Formula Caption: Calculation of enantiomeric excess for a compound with an optical purity of 40%. Notes: Optical purity and isomeric purity are not the same. A 50/50 mixture of two enantiomers has a 50% isomeric purity, but a zero optical purity or enantiomeric excess. To convert from enantiomeric excess to isomeric purity, divide the percent enantiomeric excess by two and add the result to 50%.

30. Figure Number: 05-00CO Title: Pair of Enantiomers Caption: A molecule that has a nonidentical mirror image, which does not contain a plane of symmetry is said to be chiral. Notes: The most familiar chiral objects are your hands. A plane of symmetry is a plane that cuts a molecule in two halves, each of which is the mirror image of the other.Figure Number: 05-00CO Title: Pair of Enantiomers Caption: A molecule that has a nonidentical mirror image, which does not contain a plane of symmetry is said to be chiral. Notes: The most familiar chiral objects are your hands. A plane of symmetry is a plane that cuts a molecule in two halves, each of which is the mirror image of the other.

31. Figure Number: 05-01 Title: Figure 5.1 Caption: Original and mirror images of a hand and a chair. Notes: A chiral object is not the same as its mirror image?they are nonsuperimposable (i.e., the hand). An achiral object is the same as its mirror image?they are superimposable (i.e., the chair). Figure Number: 05-01 Title: Figure 5.1 Caption: Original and mirror images of a hand and a chair. Notes: A chiral object is not the same as its mirror image?they are nonsuperimposable (i.e., the hand). An achiral object is the same as its mirror image?they are superimposable (i.e., the chair).

34. Figure Number: 05-01-19UN Title: Steering-Wheel Analogy to Priority Assignment Caption: Turning a steering wheel clockwise results in a right (rectus, R) turn and turning it counterclockwise results in a left (sinister, S) turn. Notes: The steering-wheel analogy aids in remembering that ordering highest priority groups in front of a chiral stereocenter in a clockwise fashion results in an R configuration, whereas orienting these groups in a counterclockwise fashion yields an S onfiguration.Figure Number: 05-01-19UN Title: Steering-Wheel Analogy to Priority Assignment Caption: Turning a steering wheel clockwise results in a right (rectus, R) turn and turning it counterclockwise results in a left (sinister, S) turn. Notes: The steering-wheel analogy aids in remembering that ordering highest priority groups in front of a chiral stereocenter in a clockwise fashion results in an R configuration, whereas orienting these groups in a counterclockwise fashion yields an S onfiguration.


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