Thermal and moisture protection
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Thermal and Moisture Protection. Major Topics. Waterproofing Membrane Clay Cementitious Dampproofing Hot-applied Cold-applied. Major Topics con’t. Building Insulation Rigid Mineral Fiber Loose-fill Foamed-in-place Roofing Low slope vs. steep Types of roofing materials.

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Major topics
Major Topics

  • Waterproofing

    • Membrane

    • Clay

    • Cementitious

  • Dampproofing

    • Hot-applied

    • Cold-applied

Major topics con t
Major Topics con’t

  • Building Insulation

    • Rigid

    • Mineral Fiber

    • Loose-fill

    • Foamed-in-place

  • Roofing

    • Low slope vs. steep

    • Types of roofing materials

Major topics con t1
Major Topics con’t

  • Flashing

  • Siding

  • Sealants


As defined in ASTM D1079: “the treatment of a surface or a structure to prevent the passage of water under hydrostatic pressure.”


  • Fluid-applied membranes are usually:

    • Polyurethane

    • Hot Rubberized Asphalt – not as elastic as polyurethane and requires a thicker coat

Sheet membranes
Sheet Membranes

  • Butyl synthetic rubber sheet [60 mils thick]

  • Ethylene propylene diene monomers (EPDM) [min. 1/16” thick]

  • Pre-molded bituminous [7 ply]

  • Rubberized asphalt [56 mils]

  • Self-adhesive butyl [60 mils- requires adhesive primer]


  • Usually applied on vertical below-grade surfaces

  • Hot coal-tar pitch or hot asphalt

  • The number of plies, overall thickness, and content vary according to the depth of the hydrostatic head (in ft. – all increase as the depth increases)

Clay waterproofing
Clay waterproofing

  • Bentonite clay – when wet, it expands to between 10 to 15 times its dry volume.

  • It is typically mixed with water & sprayed in place (also available in dry sheets between cardboard)

  • Placed below grade to exterior surfaces

Cementitious waterproofing
Cementitious Waterproofing

  • Composed of portland cement, aggregate, and an acrylic or plastic admix.

  • It may also contain iron fillers (then known as iron oxide waterproofing)

  • Hydraulic cement – another form of cementitious waterproofing used to seal holes, cracks and open joints (often in free-flowing water)


  • May be hot- or cold- applied

  • Hot consists of an asphalt primer or a coal-tar-based primer

  • Used on the exterior of buildings- not interior because of lingering odor and the problems associated with using “hot” products indoors.

Building insulation
Building Insulation

  • Usually added to the roof, walls, and floors of a structure

  • 4 basic classifications are:

    • Rigid board

    • Mineral fiber

    • Loose fill

    • Foamed-in-place

  • Listed according to their R-Values

Rigid insulation
Rigid Insulation

  • Usable in all parts of a building –usually in a board form

  • Most are [Resistance/inch]:

    • Polystyrene – sensitive to daylight, give off carbon monoxide while burning

    • Polyurethane [6.25] – may expand after exposure to moisture

    • Polyisocyanurate [7.2]

    • Perlite [2.78] – will not burn, tends to absorb water

    • Phenolic [8.3] –breaks easily, corrodes metal

    • Cellular glass block- [2.5] – breaks easily, deteriorates if exposed to freezing & thawing

    • Organic fiber – roofing systems primary use, wood fibers and water resistant binders

    • Glass fiber

    • Composites – take advantage of high R-values of some materials in combination with the stability of others

Mineral fiber insulation
Mineral Fiber Insulation

  • Products made from fibers from rock, slag, or glass

  • Naturally resistant to fire, moisture, and vermin

  • May be semi-rigid boards, batts, or blankets (longer than batts and sold in large rolls). Intended to fit between studs (16” or 24” o.c.)

Loose fill insulation
Loose-fill Insulation

  • Comprised of fibers, granules, or chips

  • May be poured or “blown” into attics or wall cavities

  • Common additives may include: adhesives, and chemical treatments to resist fire and vermin

Foamed in place insulation
Foamed-in-place Insulation

  • Created by a chemical reaction that expands a mixture of components as much as 30 times

  • Curing typically takes from 24-72 hours, at which time the mixture solidifies into a cellular plastic

  • Care must be taken not to “overfill” a cavity


  • Low slope – in general, these are roofs which slope less than 11/2”/ft.

  • On low slope roofs a system of compatible components is selected to work together to form a waterproof membrane

  • Common systems used are: built-up roof or single-ply

Examples of single ply membranes
Examples of Single-Ply Membranes

  • EPDM – factory cured elastomer, bonded to themselves using adhesives

  • CSPE (DuPont Hypalon) –synthetic rubber, may also be liquid

  • CPE – un-reinforced or polyester reinforced sheet material

  • PIB – formulated from isobutylene and other polymers, carbon black, and additional additives

Steep roofing
Steep Roofing

  • Slopes exceed 11/2”/ft.

  • Many materials used in modern roofing practices existed centuries ago (clay tiles, and stone)

  • Material used is based on: cost criteria, slope of roof, expected service life, wind resistance, fire resistance, and local climate.

Roofing underlayment
Roofing Underlayment

  • Should be asphalt-saturated felt (usually a No. 15 or No. 30 used, may require more than 1 layer-depending on roofing material selected)

  • Applied immediately after the roof sheathing is in place

Underlayment performs these functions
Underlayment Performs These Functions:

  • Protects sheathing from moisture absorption

  • Prevents the entrance of wind-driven rain onto sheathing

  • Prevents direct contact between asphalt shingles and resinous areas in wood sheathing (chemically incompatible-may damage shingles)

Types of roofing materials
Types of Roofing Materials

  • Asphalt shingles

  • Slate

  • Tile

  • Mineral-Fiber-Cement shingles

  • Wood shingles and shakes

  • Metal

Examples of roofing
Examples of Roofing

Comparison of types of roofing
Comparison of Types of Roofing


  • Should be installed at all intersections of other roofs, walls, and projections from roof.

  • Flashing should be made of corrosion resistant materials such as:

    • Galvanized or stainless steel (min 26 gauge)

    • Aluminum (0.019 inch min.) –avoid using next to masonry

    • Copper (16 oz.) –if not lead coated…may stain surrounding materials

    • Flexible sheet- made of PVC or modified polymers-used in single-ply & some BUR

Typical locations for flashing
Typical Locations for Flashing

  • Valleys –joint formed by 2 sloping roofs

  • Chimney

  • Eaves – ice forming along the eaves

  • Drip edge

  • All roof penetrations


  • The type of wall siding selected depends on cost, expected life service, wind resistance, fire resistance, local climate, and maintenance.

  • Possible materials include:

    • Mineral-Fiber-Cement shingles

    • Wood shingles & shakes

    • Aluminum and Vinyl siding

    • Wood or Hardboard siding

      • Bevel, Tongue & Groove, Lap, Board and Batten


  • Basic types of building sealants include:

    • Elastomeric (rubber like) –polysulfides, silicone, polyurethane [expansion joints]

    • Solvent release curing [small-joints (3/16” or less]

    • Latex emulsion [small interior joints, doors,windows]

    • Tape [glazing, concealing lap joints]

    • Acoustical [seal sound transmission, electrical outlets]

    • Preformed Foam

    • Oil-based caulking compounds [doors, windows, masonry subject to little or no movement]