Red cells
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Red Cells. Prof. K. Sivapalan. ERYTHROCYTE- RBC. Biconcave disc. 7.2 μ x 2.2 μ No nucleus. PCV – 45, 35 % Hb% - 14.5 g/dL. - Males, 13.5 g/dL. - females Red cell count 5,000,000 / mm 3 . (5 x 10 6 ). Hemoglobin. 4 Units- Heme and peptide. 2 x α chains- 141 AA.

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Red Cells

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Red cells

Red Cells

Prof. K. Sivapalan


Erythrocyte rbc

ERYTHROCYTE- RBC

  • Biconcave disc.

  • 7.2 μ x 2.2 μ

  • No nucleus.

  • PCV – 45, 35 %

  • Hb% -

    • 14.5 g/dL. - Males,

    • 13.5 g/dL. - females

  • Red cell count

    • 5,000,000 / mm3. (5 x 106)

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Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin.

  • 4 Units- Heme and peptide.

  • 2 x α chains- 141 AA.

  • 2 x β chains- 146 AA.

  • Molecular weight- 67,000.

  • Hb A- α2β2.

  • Hb A2- α2δ2. (10 AA differ)

  • Hb F - α2γ2. (37 AA differ)

  • Hb S. (sickle cells)

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Red cells

Heme.

  • Heme is attached to N terminals in the Peptide Chain.

  • Oxygenation is loose attachment to iron atom.

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Reaction of heamoglobin

Reaction of Heamoglobin.

  • 1 gram of hemoglobin binds to 1.34 ml of oxygen.

  • Hb4 + 4 O2 = Hb4O8 (Oxygenation)

  • Oxyhemoglobin – red color.

  • Deoxyhemaglobin- blue color - Cyanosis.

  • Carboxy hemoglobin- cherry red.

  • Methemoglobin- brown.

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Abnormalities of hemoglobin

Abnormalities of hemoglobin.

  • Hemoglobinopathies:

    Mutant genes → abnormal polypeptide chains.

  • Thalassemias:

    α or β thalassaemia - respective chain is absent or decreased.

    Defects in regulatory portion of the genes.

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Hemopoisis

HEMOPOISIS.

  • Stem cell.

  • Proerythroblast.

    • Basophelic.

  • Early normoblast.

  • Intermediate normoblast.

    • Hemoglobin.

  • Late normoblast.

  • Reticulocyte.

  • Erythrocyte.

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Hemopoisis1

Hemopoisis.

  • Embryo- yalk sack.

  • Later- liver, spleen and lymph nodes.

  • Adults-redbone marrow.

  • Regulation:

    • Ischemia to kidney tissue → Erythropoitin by Juxta Glomerular Apparatus → increase in hemopoisis.Duration: 4 days.

  • Testesteron stimulates red cell production and result in increased Haemoglobin concentration in adult males.

  • Glucocorticoids also stimulate- polycythaemia in excess secretion.

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Limitations to hemopoisis

Limitations to Hemopoisis.

  • Protein- severe malnutrition.

  • Iron (Fe): Inclusion in haemoglobin.

    • Difficulty in absorption.

    • Food habits.

    • Loss [females].

  • Cyanocobalamine (Vit. B12) and,

    Folic acid:

    • DNA synthesis.

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Fate of red cells

Fate of red cells.

  • Average life span – 120 days [ of the red cells, 1/120 destroyed daily].

  • Destroyed by the Macropharges in spleen.

    • [Reticulo - Endothelial System]

  • Trabeculae in spleen – 3 μ.

  • Protein → Amino acid pool.

  • Heam →Iron + Porphyrin.

  • Iron → storage + recycled.

  • Porphyrin → Bilirubin – excreted.

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Bilirubin

Bilirubin

  • Bound to albumin, taken up by the liver. [yellow]

  • Biliverdin – green.

  • Conjugated with glucuronic acid → water soluble and Excreated in bile – green.

  • Intestinal bacteria – stercobilinogen →absorbed – urobilinogen.

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Investigations on red cell

Investigations on red cell.

  • Osmotic Fragility.

    • Two drops of blood in NaCl solutions with varying osmolality and observe for hemolysis. Spherocytosis- fragility increased.

  • Hemoglobin concentration.

    • Talqivist method.

    • Sahli method (acid haematin formation).

    • Calorimeters.

    • Oxygen content.

  • Pack cell volume.

    • Centrifugation. (buffy coat)

  • Red cell count.

    • Red cell pipette and hemocytometer.

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Red cell parameters

Red cell parameters.

  • Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin [MCH]

    = Hb in g in 100 ml / No. of RBC in 100 ml.

    = 15/5x106 x 105 = 15/5x1011 = 30 x 10-12.

    = 27 – 32 Pg.

  • Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration [MCHC]

    = Hb in 100 ml / RBC volume in 100 ml.

    = 15/45 x 100 = 32 – 38 %

  • Mean Corpuscular Volume [MCV]

    = Volume of RBC in 100 ml / Number of RBC in 100 ml.

    = 45 / 5 x 1011= 90 x 10-12= 80 – 94 μ3.

  • Differences between Males and Females.

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Anemia

Anemia.

  • Aplastic anemia:

    Bone marrow not producing red cells. [normocytic normochromic anaemia]

    Renal causes- Erythropoitin.

    Marrow depression:

    Drugs.

    Malignancy. [leucaemias]

  • Deficiency anemia:

    Iron [Microcytic hypochromic anaemia]

    Vitamin B12, Folic acid [Macrocytic hyperchromic anaemia, Megaloblastic anaemia.]

  • Hemolytic anemia:

    malaria, hereditary, drugs.

Red Cells


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