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Chapter Five. Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities or Mental Retardation. Defining Intellectual Disability: An Evolving Process. 1961 AAIDD Definition 1973 AAIDD Definition 1983 AAIDD Definition 1992 AAIDD Definition 2002 AAIDD Definition 2010 AAIDD Definition.

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Chapter Five

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Chapter five

Chapter Five

Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities or Mental Retardation


Defining intellectual disability an evolving process

Defining Intellectual Disability: An Evolving Process

  • 1961 AAIDD Definition

  • 1973 AAIDD Definition

  • 1983 AAIDD Definition

  • 1992 AAIDD Definition

  • 2002 AAIDD Definition

  • 2010 AAIDD Definition


Defining intellectual disability or mental retardation

Defining Intellectual Disability or Mental Retardation

1961 AAIDD definition

  • “Subaverage general intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period and is associated with impairments in adaptive behavior.”

    1973 AAIDD definition

  • “Significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior, and manifested during the developmental period.”

    1983 AAIDD definition

  • “Significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning resulting in or associated with concurrent impairment in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period.”


Defining intellectual disability or mental retardation1

Defining Intellectual Disability or Mental Retardation

1992 AAIDD definition

  • “Significantly subaverage intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with related limitations in two or more of the following applicable adaptive skill areas: communication, self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure, and work. Mental retardation manifests before age 18.”

  • It portrays intellectual disability as a relationship among three key elements: the individual, the environment, and the type of support required for maximum functioning in various settings.

  • It stresses functioning in one’s community rather than just focusing on the clinical aspect of the individual such as IQ score or adaptive behavior.


Defining intellectual disability or mental retardation2

Defining Intellectual Disability or Mental Retardation

2002 AAIDD definition

  • “Mental retardation is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. This disability originates before age 18.”

  • Limitations in present functioning must be considered within the context of community environments typical of the individual’s age, peers, and culture.

  • With appropriate personalized supports over a sustained period, the life functioning of the person with an intellectual disability will generally improve.


Defining intellectual disability or mental retardation3

Defining Intellectual Disability or Mental Retardation

2010 AAIDD definition

  • The term mental retardation is replaced by the more contemporary label, intellectual disabilities.

  • Developed by a committee of eighteen medical and legal scholars as well as policymakers, educators, and other professionals, the 2010 definition emphasizes the abilities and assets of individuals with intellectual disabilities rather than their deficits or limitations.

  • Intellectual disabilities are viewed as a state of functioning rather than an inherent trait. As in earlier definitions, one of the goals of the 2010 definition is to maximize support services so as to allow persons with intellectual disabilities to participate fully in all aspects of daily life.


Adaptive skill areas

Adaptive Skill Areas


Assessing intellectual ability

Assessing Intellectual Ability

Assessment tools:

  • Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th Edition (WISC-IV)

  • Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (5th ed.)

    Potential problems:

  • Potential for cultural bias

  • Flexibility of IQ scores

  • Overemphasis on IQ score

    Watch this video to learn more about diagnosing students with intellectual disabilities


Assessing adaptive behavior

Assessing Adaptive Behavior

Adaptive behavior is seen as “the degree to which, and the efficiency with which, the individual meets the standards of maturation, learning, personal independence, and/or social responsibility that are expected for his or her age level and cultural group.”

(Grossman, 1983, p. 11)

Assessing Adaptive Behavior

  • Considers the context of the individual’s environment and cultural influences

    Assessment Tools:

  • AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scale-School

  • AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scale-Residential and Community


Classification of individuals with intellectual disabilities

Classification of Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities

  • Etiological perspective- consequence of disease processes or biological defects

  • Intellectual deficits- classification based on IQ score

  • Educational perspective- use of outdated terms to distinguish a children’s level of ability to learn academic or employment skills

  • Levels of supports- definitions have shifted to an emphasis on the level of supports that an individual needs rather than IQ score


Brief history of the field

Brief History of the Field

  • Early civilizations

  • The Middle Ages

  • Early optimism (early nineteenth century)

  • Protection and pessimism (late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries)

  • Emergence of public education for students with intellectual disabilities


Prevalence of intellectual disabilities

Prevalence of Intellectual Disabilities

  • Over 476,000 students between the ages of 6-21 were identified as having intellectual disabilities during the 2008-2009 school year.

  • These students represent approximately 8% of all pupils with disabilities and about 1% of the total school age population.

  • The number of students identified as having intellectual disabilities has decreased over the years.


Etiology of intellectual disabilities or mental retardation

Etiology of Intellectual Disabilities or Mental Retardation

Prenatal (before birth)

  • chromosomal, maternal infections, environmental factors, unknown influences

    Perinatal (during birth)

  • gestational disorders, neonatal complications

    Postnatal (after birth)

  • infections and intoxicants, environmental factors

    To learn about people with Down Syndrome view the following video: Down Syndrome in the 21st Century


Prevention of intellectual disabilities and mental retardation

Prevention of Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Retardation

Prevention Levels:

  • Primary (before onset or occurrence)

    • Prenatal care, genetic testing, ultrasound

  • Secondary (reduce risk factors)

    • Newborn screening

  • Tertiary (interventions)

    • Aimed at maximizing the quality of life for a person with a disability


Characteristics of individuals with intellectual disabilities or mental retardation

Characteristics of Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities or Mental Retardation

Learning Characteristics

-attention

-memory

-academic performance

-motivation

-generalization

-language development

Social and Behavioral

Characteristics

-poor interpersonal skills

-socially appropriate

interactions

-difficulty establishing and maintaining friendships


Educational considerations

Educational Considerations

  • Functional academics/functional curriculum

  • Community-based instruction

  • Standards-based instruction

    IEP teams must consider:

    student and family preferences, student’s age and years left in school, rate of learning, current and future settings, other skill needs


Effective instructional techniques

Effective Instructional Techniques

  • High expectations

  • Task analysis

  • Cooperative learning

  • Scaffolding

  • Inclusion strategies:

    • Modify instruction, materials, and assessments

    • Teach organizational skills

    • Monitor progress of all students

    • Collaborate with families


Services for young children with intellectual disabilities

Services for Young Children With Intellectual Disabilities

  • Early intervention can be defined as the services and supports rendered to children with disabilities or those who evidence risk factors, younger than age 3, and their families.

  • Early intervention represents a consortium of services—not just educational assistance but also health care, social services, family supports, and other benefits.


Transition into adulthood

Transition Into Adulthood

Transition planning

  • Independent living

  • Employment

    • Sheltered workshop

    • Supported competitive employment

    • Job coach


Adults with intellectual disabilities

Adults With Intellectual Disabilities

  • Integration in all aspects of daily life with nondisabled peers

  • Self-determination: decision-making capacity must be fostered

  • Self-advocacy: encourage people with intellectual disabilities to advocate for their own wants and needs

    Watch this video to learn about a woman with intellectual disabilities: Intellectual Disabilities


Family issues

Family Issues

Families with a child with intellectual disabilities may experience a wide range of concerns and often rely on a support network made up of friends and family members in addition to parent organizations and professional groups.


Issues of diversity

Issues of Diversity

  • Overrepresentation of minority students in special education programs

  • Culturally biased assessment tools and practices

  • Teacher expectations


Technology and individuals with intellectual disabilities

Technology and Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities

  • Instructional technology: any device that supports the teaching/learning process, such as a computer or television

  • Assistive technology: technology that is specially designed to assist persons with disabilities


Trends issues and controversies

Trends, Issues, and Controversies

  • Genetic testing

  • Quality of life

  • Attitudinal changes

  • Technology and medical advances

  • Inclusive education

  • Increased self-advocacy and self-determination


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