The Role of Blood Donation in Healthcare
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The Role of Blood Donation in Healthcare Presented by Peter Hudson Clinical Specialist in Blood Transfusion. WHERE DO WE GET OUR BLOOD SUPPLIES FROM?. UK sourced from voluntary unpaid donors. Collected and processed by the National Blood Service. WHY GIVE BLOOD?.

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The Role of Blood Donation in HealthcarePresented by Peter Hudson Clinical Specialist in Blood Transfusion


WHERE DO WE GET OUR BLOOD SUPPLIES FROM?

  • UK sourced from voluntary unpaid donors

  • Collected and processed by the National Blood Service


WHY GIVE BLOOD?

  • Over 35,000 donations weekly

    - 1.4 million donors

    - Only 4% of people give blood

  • 10-15% donor loss per year

    • Donors don’t give every time

    • Constantly “topping-up”


WHO ARE THE

NATIONAL BLOOD SERVICE?

  • Part of the National Health Service

  • Provide blood and blood products to hospitals


A BRIEF HISTORY

OF BLOOD DONATION

  • 1666: First successful blood transfusion

  • 1900: Four Human blood types discovered

  • 1946: National Blood Service Launched


SO WHAT EXACTLY IS BLOOD?

  • Transfers oxygen from the lungs

  • Communication System within body

  • Average person has 5 litres of blood


COMPONENTS AND THEIR ROLES

  • Red Cells

    - Distribute oxygen and nutrients

    - Contain haemoglobin

  • White Cells

    - Fight infection

    - Several different types


COMPONENTS AND THEIR ROLES

  • Platelets

    - Form a “plug” to stop bleeding

    - 5 day shelf-life

  • Plasma

    - Carries other blood cells

    - Carries Albumin and Factor Viii


BLOOD TYPES

  • A, B, AB and O

  • Antigens

    • A and B antigens

    • Rh Antigen



BLOOD AROUND THE WORLD

  • Prevalence varies across the world

    - B more common in South Asian people than Westerners

    - Anthropology

  • Some blood conditions are more common in

    - Sickle Cell Anaemia and Thalassemia

    - Events of the past, e.g. plague

different communities


General surgery 10%

Gastro intestinal bleeding 11%

Anaemia 23%

Haematology 15%

Orthopaedics 14%

WHO NEEDS BLOOD?

  • How many units get used?

    - Open heart surgery = 2-8 red cell units, 6 platelet units

    - Car accident = 4-40 red cell units


RECIPIENT STORIES

BROOKE CORNWELL

  • 2 years old – has received 27 units of blood

  • Has Diamond Blackfan Anaemia

  • Needs blood every month to live


RECIPIENT STORIES

LUKE CRAIG

  • Involved in a horrific car crash

  • Internal bleeding and tear in his heart

  • Emergency operation – 24 units of blood


RECIPIENT STORIES

MIKE AUSTIN

  • Severe motorbike accident

  • Leg destroyed – artery damaged

  • Received 33 units of blood


RECIPIENT STORIES

AWELE NWOSU-AKEH

  • 17 year old with Sickle Cell Anaemia

  • Receives blood every 4 weeks

  • Blood allows her to have a normal life


RECIPIENT STORIES

KEIRA

  • Kostmann’s syndrome

  • Bowel removed

  • 9 units of red cells and 7 of platelets


RECIPIENT STORIES

NISA HEYS

  • Has Thalassaemia Major

  • Has transfusions every 3 weeks

  • Received over 1300 units of blood so far


CAN YOU DONATE?

  • You must be aged between 17-65 to donate for the first time

  • Most common criteria we check are:-

    • Tattoos

    • Piercings

    • Travel

    • Medication

  • You will always be asked to fill out a Donor Health Check questionnaire


I could die as a result of donation”

“I might catch something”

“You don’t want my blood”

“You experiment on our blood”

“It hurts”!

“I ALWAYS faint”!

“I smoke and drink alcohol”

CAN YOU DONATE? (MYTHS)


THE DONATION PROCESS

Making the call

Fill out the questionnaire

Arrive at session

The donation

Aftercare


White

Mixed

South Asian

African & Caribbean

Chinese

Any Other Group

DONOR ETHNICITY

B

“25% of the South Asian ethnic population are blood group B and only 9% of Western Europeans share this group”


British Bone Marrow Register

DONOR ETHNICITY (cont)

  • We need to build the British Bone Marrow Registry

  • Some tissue types are specific to certain ethnic groups of the population

  • The notion of blood donation does not enter personal and social spheres


WHAT HAPPENS TO THE BLOOD?

  • Kept cool then collected

  • Typed and tested

  • Components Separated

  • Banked and ready to go!


WHAT IS THE BLOOD TESTED FOR?

VIRUSES

HIV 1 and 2

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)

Hepatitis C Virus (HBC)

HTLV (Human T- cell Leukaemia Virus)

Cytomegalovirus (CMV)


THEY DON’T JUST COLLECT BLOOD

  • Bone Marrow

  • Organs

  • Cord Blood

  • Tissue


THANK YOU FOR LISTENING

Any Questions?


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