Cataloguing Sound Recordings

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Types of Sound Recordings. Five FormatsCylinder: since 1859.Disk (or disc): Shellac, vinyl; 33, 45 rpm.Magnetic: Wire, tape (cassette, reel-to-reel).Optical: Compact disc.Solid state: All-electronic, i.e. MP3, WAV, streaming.. History of Bibliographic Control. 1973 IFLA general counsel recomme

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Cataloguing Sound Recordings

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1. Cataloguing Sound Recordings Harjit Aulakh Luke Meager Jenna Thomson LIBR 513 Ė November 30, 2005

2. Types of Sound Recordings Five Formats Cylinder: since 1859. Disk (or disc): Shellac, vinyl; 33, 45 rpm. Magnetic: Wire, tape (cassette, reel-to-reel). Optical: Compact disc. Solid state: All-electronic, i.e. MP3, WAV, streaming.

3. History of Bibliographic Control 1973 IFLA general counsel recommends that ISBD(NBM) Working Group be formed ISBD(NBM) W.G. constituted in 1975 1975: Joint Steering Committee of AACR proposed to IFLA that a general bibliographic standard be developed

4. History of Bibliographic Control 1977: ISBD(NBM) Non-book materials Published in conjunction and conformity with ISBD(G) 1976: AACR (North American text) Chapter 14 revised: Sound Recordings; reflecting development of ISBDs) Incorporated into AACR2 (1978)

5. History of Bibliographic Control AACR2 Chapter 9 (renamed ďComputer FilesĒ) published in 1987 2001 amendments to AACR2 included complete revision of Chapter 9 (renamed ďElectronic ResourcesĒ)

6. History of Bibliographic Control / Best Practices Since 1989 the Library of Congress: LCRI (Library of Congress Rule Interpretations) Refers to rule numbers of AACR2

7. Best Practices Library of Congress OCLC Ralph Papakhian @ William and Gale Cook Music Library, Indiana State University

8. Sound Recordings Ė Compact Discs

9. Introduction CDs are two Things Sound Recordings Electronic Resources Chief Source Of Information Rule No 6.0B1 of AACR2r Item itself

10. Title Rule No 1.1B1, 5.1B1 and 6.1B1 of AACR2r . Parallel titles Rule No 6.1D1, 1.1D and 5.1D Pyass:In search of Destiny Romanization Rule No A.33A, and A.34A of AACR2r

11.

12. Place of Publication Distribution, etc. Rule no 6.4c1 and 1.4c1 of AACR2r New Delhi Name of Publisher, Distributor, etc. Rule no 6.4D1 and 1.4D Tseries Date of Publication. 6.4F1 and 1.4F 2005

13. Physical Description Rule no 6.5B Extent of item (including specific material designation) 1 sound disc (45min.) Other Physical Details Rule no 6.5C1 and 6.5C2 type of recording 1sound disc (45min.) digital Dimensions Rule no 6.5D2 the diameter of the disc in inches 1sound disc (45min.) digital 4 3/4 in.

14. Notes Language Rule no 6.7B2 Songs in Punjabi Content Rule no 6.7B17 Added Entry Mann, Babbu; Kumar Gulshan

15. Catalogue According To AACR2r Type of Material: Music Sound recording Main Title: GMD:[sound recording] Parallel Title: Pyass: In search of destiny Statement of Responsibility: Singer,lyrics, Music Babbu Mann;Presented by,Gulshan Kumar Physical Description: 1sound disc (45min.): digital; 4 3/4 in. Place & Publisher: New Delhi,Tseries

16. Notes Language Songs in Punjabi Content 1.Mitran Di Chhatri; 2. Mere Dil vich; 3. Kandh Tapke; 4. Laarian De Naal; 5. Pakki Kanak; 6 Pind Diyan Juhaan 7. Hiq ute Gut; 8. Teri Banh Fadni. Added entry Babbu Mann and Gulshan Kumar

17. MARC 245 ## $a [sound recording]: $b Pyass: in search of destiny. /$c Presented by Gulshan Kumar; singer,lyrics & music Babbu Maan 246 ## $a Pyass: $b In search of destiny. 260 3# $a New Delhi, India $b Tseries. 300 ## $a 1sound disc (45min.) $b digital; 43/4in. 505 ## $a 1.Mitran Di Chhatri; 2. Mere Dil vich; 3. Kandh Tapke; 4. Laarian De Naal; 5. Pakki Kanak; 6 Pind Diyan Juhaan; 7. Hiq ute Gut; 8. Teri Banh Fadni. 508 ## $a Producer; Kumar Gulshan. 546 ## $a Songs in Punjabi. 700 1# $a Mann, Babbu. 700 1# $a Kumar, Gulshan.

18. Cataloguing an MP3 For fun and profit Alright, So Iím going to talk about cataloguing MP3s, which isnít exactly profitable, and not really that fun either.Alright, So Iím going to talk about cataloguing MP3s, which isnít exactly profitable, and not really that fun either.

19. Why Bother? Many libraries are adding MP3s to their collections Audiobooks Music Can either add them in their own list, or catalogue them, which makes them easier to find. So, why would anyone bother cataloguing an MP3, besides for a class presentation? Many libraries are really expanding their audiobook and music collections and are moving into getting MP3s to supplement their CD collection. MP3s generally require way less maintenance than CDs since they canít break or anything, and with more and more people getting MP3 players, theyíre a popular way to go. Like ejournals, a lot of libraries keep their MP3 collections separate from their catalogues, making people search a separate list. In this case, the MP3s might not actually be catalogued using AACR2r and MARC, but might just have some other form of metadata to identify them. However, some libraries are integrating them right into their catalogues, and to do that properly theyíll need to go all out and create a MARC record. So thatís what I did.So, why would anyone bother cataloguing an MP3, besides for a class presentation? Many libraries are really expanding their audiobook and music collections and are moving into getting MP3s to supplement their CD collection. MP3s generally require way less maintenance than CDs since they canít break or anything, and with more and more people getting MP3 players, theyíre a popular way to go. Like ejournals, a lot of libraries keep their MP3 collections separate from their catalogues, making people search a separate list. In this case, the MP3s might not actually be catalogued using AACR2r and MARC, but might just have some other form of metadata to identify them. However, some libraries are integrating them right into their catalogues, and to do that properly theyíll need to go all out and create a MARC record. So thatís what I did.

20. The Trick MP3s are two things: Sound Recordings Electronic Resources Which of these is most important? e.g.: is it a sound recording first and an electronic resource second, or vice versa? Generally considered a sound recording, with electronic resource attributes. There are a few hitches that need to be overcome before you can really start cataloguing an MP3. First of all, you need to decide what exactly an MP3 is. Itís both a sound recording and an electronic resource, at the same time. This is tricky, since it means youíll need to look in a couple of different places. So when you look at an MP3, you need to decide whether itís attributes as a sound recording are more important than as an electronic resource, or vice versa. Generally, MP3s are considered sound recordings with electronic resource attributes. Basically, theyíre really not interesting just as files, the whole point of them is to play sound.There are a few hitches that need to be overcome before you can really start cataloguing an MP3. First of all, you need to decide what exactly an MP3 is. Itís both a sound recording and an electronic resource, at the same time. This is tricky, since it means youíll need to look in a couple of different places. So when you look at an MP3, you need to decide whether itís attributes as a sound recording are more important than as an electronic resource, or vice versa. Generally, MP3s are considered sound recordings with electronic resource attributes. Basically, theyíre really not interesting just as files, the whole point of them is to play sound.

21. The Other Trick MP3s donít exist physically You never have the item ďin handĒ They come with NO packaging MP3s need special software in order to be played. However, you CAN still catalogue MP3s using AACR2r and MARC. Yay! So, once youíve got that figured out, you have to face the fact that you will NEVER hold the item in hand. All that stuff about what is actually on the object goes out the window when youíre just talking about ones and zeroes and electrons floating through space. MP3s also come with NO physical wrapper, so you canít look at it for clues either. Sorry. You also need to remember that MP3s need special software to run, which has to be noted somewhere in the record. Luckily, despite all the weird things about them, you can still catalogue MP3s using AACR2r and MARC. Iím sure youíre all really glad about that.So, once youíve got that figured out, you have to face the fact that you will NEVER hold the item in hand. All that stuff about what is actually on the object goes out the window when youíre just talking about ones and zeroes and electrons floating through space. MP3s also come with NO physical wrapper, so you canít look at it for clues either. Sorry. You also need to remember that MP3s need special software to run, which has to be noted somewhere in the record. Luckily, despite all the weird things about them, you can still catalogue MP3s using AACR2r and MARC. Iím sure youíre all really glad about that.

22. What Chapter of AACR2r does that fall into? Chapter 6: Sound Recordings Covers all the elements of the record that deal with the content, like statement of responsibility. Chapter 9: Electronic Resources Covers the format and technical aspects of the file, like physical description. Basically a mish-mash of the two. To catalogue an MP3 you basically need to mush together chapter 6, Sound recordings, and Chapter 9, electronic resources. The sound recordings part covers content, like the statement of responsibility, title, all that stuff, and chapter 9 deals with the format and technical aspects of the file. So you end up flipping between the two chapters a lot to get the thing catalogued.To catalogue an MP3 you basically need to mush together chapter 6, Sound recordings, and Chapter 9, electronic resources. The sound recordings part covers content, like the statement of responsibility, title, all that stuff, and chapter 9 deals with the format and technical aspects of the file. So you end up flipping between the two chapters a lot to get the thing catalogued.

23. Where do I start? How are you accessing the MP3? Remotely (Need a network connection) Directly (CD) What exactly are you cataloguing? One MP3 of one song? An audiobook? A CD of many MP3s? So, where do you start? First you need to figure out just how youíre getting hold of this MP3, which will be either directly off a CD or something like that, or remotely. If youíre getting it remotely, itís still usually downloaded to your computer, rather than streaming. You also need to figure out just exactly it is that youíre cataloguing. Are you cataloguing a single track or a bunch? Are you cataloguing an audiobook that is likely made up of a bunch of tracks, each of which contains a different chapter but is likely catalogued as a whole? These wonít make HUGE differences, but they will make some, particularly in the notes fields. So, I decided to catalogue a single MP3 off one of my friends new albums. The track is available online, so I catalogued it as if I accessed it that way. So, where do you start? First you need to figure out just how youíre getting hold of this MP3, which will be either directly off a CD or something like that, or remotely. If youíre getting it remotely, itís still usually downloaded to your computer, rather than streaming. You also need to figure out just exactly it is that youíre cataloguing. Are you cataloguing a single track or a bunch? Are you cataloguing an audiobook that is likely made up of a bunch of tracks, each of which contains a different chapter but is likely catalogued as a whole? These wonít make HUGE differences, but they will make some, particularly in the notes fields. So, I decided to catalogue a single MP3 off one of my friends new albums. The track is available online, so I catalogued it as if I accessed it that way.

24. Where do I get information? Chief Source of Information: Unlike film, the chief source of information is not the information on the item itself, with rule 6.0B1 noting that you should prefer textual data over sound data. This is a problem since there is no physical accompanying material. ďTake the information from formally presented evidence (e.g. title screen(s), main menus, Ö encoded metadata, and the physical carrier or its labelsĒ. (9.0B1) Solution: MP3s have metadata in their ID3 tags. As I mentioned before, MP3s donít have a wrapper. Unlike film, where there chief source of information is the title frames, rule 6.0B1 notes that you should prefer textual data over sound data. OK, but what if thereís no case? This is when you flip over to chapter 9 to look at electronic documents. Rule 9.0B1 notes that you can take the information from any formally presented evidence, which includes encoded metadata. Now, that is one thing that most good MP3s will come with. Theyíll have ID3 tags, and thatís where you get most of your info. 9.0B1 also says that you can get info from sources such as the publisherís website, so if they band has a website thatís also a good source of supplementary information, but isnít the preferred chief source.As I mentioned before, MP3s donít have a wrapper. Unlike film, where there chief source of information is the title frames, rule 6.0B1 notes that you should prefer textual data over sound data. OK, but what if thereís no case? This is when you flip over to chapter 9 to look at electronic documents. Rule 9.0B1 notes that you can take the information from any formally presented evidence, which includes encoded metadata. Now, that is one thing that most good MP3s will come with. Theyíll have ID3 tags, and thatís where you get most of your info. 9.0B1 also says that you can get info from sources such as the publisherís website, so if they band has a website thatís also a good source of supplementary information, but isnít the preferred chief source.

25. ID3 Tags? Contains all the pertinent information about an MP3 So, for those of you who arenít sure what an ID3 tag is, itís basically a metadata schema that is associated with an MP3. It includes all sorts of information about the MP3, such as the title, author, album,, year, and technical info. The amount of information in an ID3 tag will vary depending on the source of the tag, but theyíre usually fairly comprehensive. So, for those of you who arenít sure what an ID3 tag is, itís basically a metadata schema that is associated with an MP3. It includes all sorts of information about the MP3, such as the title, author, album,, year, and technical info. The amount of information in an ID3 tag will vary depending on the source of the tag, but theyíre usually fairly comprehensive.

26. My example: One remote access music MP3 So, this is what my example looks like. Iíll spend a bit of time picking over the interesting bits of the record.So, this is what my example looks like. Iíll spend a bit of time picking over the interesting bits of the record.

27. And let the cataloguing beginÖ 110 2 $a Perpetual Dream Theory. 245 10 $a When Worlds Collide $h [sound recording] $c Perpetual Dream Theory. Chief source of info: ID3 tags. Title proper: Nothing unusual (6.1B). GMD: [Sound Recording] vs. [Electronic Resource] (6.1C1 & 9.1C1) Use ďdependsĒ on whether the cataloguer sees the item as primarily music or a file. Statement of Responsibility: Like with a CD, those with a major role in creating the intellectual content get the credit (6.1F1 & 9.1F1) So, as I mentioned before, the chief source of info is the ID3 tags. Thereís nothing different about picking the title proper, itís all laid out in 6.1B. The GMD is the first trick. Chapter 6.1C2 says that if an item contains parts belonging to materials falling into two or more categories, and if none of these is the predominant constituent of the item, give either ďmultmediaĒ or ďkitĒ as the designation. But this seems wrong, since it does feel like one of these would be predominant, itís not a multimedia item in that it includes both sound and video, or a kit because itís made up of different pieces. Some people suggest that the distinction lies in whether the file is accessed locally or remotely, but Iím not sure why a file that is accessed through a network is more ďelectronicĒ than one taken off a cd-rom. So, I decided to catalogue it as a Sound Recording, since I felt that that was itís primary characteristic. Because really, what other role does it have? And then the statement of responsibility is like it was for the CD, you take those who have a major role in creating the intellectual content. In this case it was the whole band, Perpetual Dream Theory, because they wrote the songs together. So, as I mentioned before, the chief source of info is the ID3 tags. Thereís nothing different about picking the title proper, itís all laid out in 6.1B. The GMD is the first trick. Chapter 6.1C2 says that if an item contains parts belonging to materials falling into two or more categories, and if none of these is the predominant constituent of the item, give either ďmultmediaĒ or ďkitĒ as the designation. But this seems wrong, since it does feel like one of these would be predominant, itís not a multimedia item in that it includes both sound and video, or a kit because itís made up of different pieces. Some people suggest that the distinction lies in whether the file is accessed locally or remotely, but Iím not sure why a file that is accessed through a network is more ďelectronicĒ than one taken off a cd-rom. So, I decided to catalogue it as a Sound Recording, since I felt that that was itís primary characteristic. Because really, what other role does it have? And then the statement of responsibility is like it was for the CD, you take those who have a major role in creating the intellectual content. In this case it was the whole band, Perpetual Dream Theory, because they wrote the songs together.

28. Weird Fields 256 $a Computer data (1 file, 6.8MB). Type and Extent of Resource (9.3?) Several resources I looked at referred to this chapter and this field, which doesnít exist in AACR2r 2005Ö BUT the MARC site does give ďComputer dataĒ as an option, followed by the number of files and their size. So, I went with it. 306 $a 000454 Playing Time Most of the 300 fields get ignored, since thereís nothing to describe in the physical description. BUT can use 306 to record the length of the track (hhmmss), as per 6.5B2. So, Iím going to go over some of the weird MARC fields and the rules that dominate them. I found a few resources about cataloguing MP3s, all of which politely referred me to chapter 9.3. Which doesnít exist. It refers to the type and extent of the resource, which I included since MARC has this nice 256 field for it, but Iím not sure if the section was slashed in the newest version of the AACR2r or what. I tried to find out what happened to it, but kept hitting dead ends. An MP3, since it doesnít exist physically, doesnít get a lot of 300 fields. Thereís no size, no container, no material, nothing. However, it does have a length, which is included as per rule 6.5B2. The length of the track is recorded in hour-minute-second format, so I guess youíd have to split any stupendously long MP3s, over 99 hours, 99 minutes, and 99 seconds, into two to get them in here properly. I donít think this is an issue very often.So, Iím going to go over some of the weird MARC fields and the rules that dominate them. I found a few resources about cataloguing MP3s, all of which politely referred me to chapter 9.3. Which doesnít exist. It refers to the type and extent of the resource, which I included since MARC has this nice 256 field for it, but Iím not sure if the section was slashed in the newest version of the AACR2r or what. I tried to find out what happened to it, but kept hitting dead ends. An MP3, since it doesnít exist physically, doesnít get a lot of 300 fields. Thereís no size, no container, no material, nothing. However, it does have a length, which is included as per rule 6.5B2. The length of the track is recorded in hour-minute-second format, so I guess youíd have to split any stupendously long MP3s, over 99 hours, 99 minutes, and 99 seconds, into two to get them in here properly. I donít think this is an issue very often.

29. Notes Galore! 538 $a Mode of access: World Wide Web. Address: http://www.dreamtheory.net/mp3/Perpetual%5FDream%5FTheory-When%5FWorlds%5FCollide.mp3. Mode of access (9.7B1c) If a resource is available only by remote access, always secify the mode of access. I included not only that it was available on the WWW, but also the address. Have to replace all underscore (_) characters with %5F. 500 $a Title from ID3v2 tag. Source of Title Proper (9.7B3) The title source should always be given for an electronic resource because itís rarely obvious. So, like many of these weird items, MP3s are note-heavy. Surprise! The Notes fields for MP3s are supposed to be set out in a preferred order, which is why they appear to be in no particular order. They are in some sort of order, just not one anyone really understands. So, the 538 field provides the mode of access, outlined in 9.7B1c. This explicitly states that if something is available by remote access, like this MP3, you have to specify how it is accessed. So, I included that it is available on the web and gave the URL. You have to make sure to change all the underscores to their hex equivalent, which is %5F. You also need to include the source of the title proper, since itís really not that obvious where it would have come from. Those are both technology things from chapter nine.So, like many of these weird items, MP3s are note-heavy. Surprise! The Notes fields for MP3s are supposed to be set out in a preferred order, which is why they appear to be in no particular order. They are in some sort of order, just not one anyone really understands. So, the 538 field provides the mode of access, outlined in 9.7B1c. This explicitly states that if something is available by remote access, like this MP3, you have to specify how it is accessed. So, I included that it is available on the web and gave the URL. You have to make sure to change all the underscores to their hex equivalent, which is %5F. You also need to include the source of the title proper, since itís really not that obvious where it would have come from. Those are both technology things from chapter nine.

30. More Notes 511 0 $a Eryn Holbrook, vocals, piano, keyboard; Gordon Breckinridge, guitars, Ö. Statements of Responsibility (6.7B6) ÖGive the names of performers and the medium in which they perform if they have not been named in the statements of responsibility and if they are judged necessary. 530 $a Also issued on compact disc. Other formats (6.7B16) Provide the details of other formats in which the contents of the item has been issued. Then you switch over to chapter 6 to deal with content. So, I added a 511 field to give further statements of responsibility as per 6.7B6. Since the individual performers arenít included in the 110 field, they get added here, including the medium in which they perform. So Eryn here is the singer and also plays the piano and keyboard. Every member of the band who is ďjudged necessaryĒ is put in this field. You also have to add a 530 field to deal with rule 6.7B16, other formats. This notes any other ways that the material can be accessed, which in this case is CD.Then you switch over to chapter 6 to deal with content. So, I added a 511 field to give further statements of responsibility as per 6.7B6. Since the individual performers arenít included in the 110 field, they get added here, including the medium in which they perform. So Eryn here is the singer and also plays the piano and keyboard. Every member of the band who is ďjudged necessaryĒ is put in this field. You also have to add a 530 field to deal with rule 6.7B16, other formats. This notes any other ways that the material can be accessed, which in this case is CD.

31. Really, itís all about the notes 500 $a Description based on contents viewed Nov. 21, 2005. Item Described (9.7B22) For remote access resources, always give the date on which the resource was viewed for description. 856 40 $u http://www.dreamtheory.net/mp3/ Perpetual%5FDream %5FTheory-When%5FWorlds%5F Collide.mp3 Electronic Location and Access Not required by AACR2r Finally, 9.7B22 demands that you give the date you viewed the resource if itís remotely accessed. This just goes in a regular 500 field, but deals with any hiccups in access and lets people know when the site definitely worked if itís gone down. And, admitedly, 856 is NOT a note field, but it is the last field and it fit on this slide. Itís the electronic location and access field, which isnít required by AACR2r, but is always a nice thing to put in. It just gets the same URL, with the same substitutions for the underscore, as the 538 field did earlier. Finally, 9.7B22 demands that you give the date you viewed the resource if itís remotely accessed. This just goes in a regular 500 field, but deals with any hiccups in access and lets people know when the site definitely worked if itís gone down. And, admitedly, 856 is NOT a note field, but it is the last field and it fit on this slide. Itís the electronic location and access field, which isnít required by AACR2r, but is always a nice thing to put in. It just gets the same URL, with the same substitutions for the underscore, as the 538 field did earlier.

32. Variable & Fixed Fields 006 (R) Ė Additional Material Characteristics & 007 (R) Ė Physical Description Field Need two Ė one for Sound Recording and one for Electronic Resource. 008 (NR!) Ė General Information Since 008 is not repeatable, need to decide whether to catalogue as a recording or a file. MARC notes that most electronic resources are catalogued as such, UNLESS they have a more significant aspect. Therefore, an MP3 is catalogued as a sound recording. Alright. Iím not going to go into a whole lot of detail about setting up the 006, 007, and 008 fields as they are pretty clearly laid out on the MARC page. But Iíll say a few things. One is that itís great that the 006 and 007 fields are repeatable, since that way you can include two of each, one for the item as a sound recording and one for it as an electronic resource. This lets you cover all your bases. Unfortunately the 008 field isnít as generous, and itís non-repeatable. So this is where you really really have to stick to your guns and decide if an MP3 is an electronic resource or a sound file. Luckily MARC makes this easy, noting that most electronic resources are catalogued just as electronic resources, unluess they have another significant aspect. So, the 008 field for my record is for a sound file, not an electronic resource. Thatís just life. And those are the basic steps in cataloguing an MP3, which is actually kind of an interesting process. Alright. Iím not going to go into a whole lot of detail about setting up the 006, 007, and 008 fields as they are pretty clearly laid out on the MARC page. But Iíll say a few things. One is that itís great that the 006 and 007 fields are repeatable, since that way you can include two of each, one for the item as a sound recording and one for it as an electronic resource. This lets you cover all your bases. Unfortunately the 008 field isnít as generous, and itís non-repeatable. So this is where you really really have to stick to your guns and decide if an MP3 is an electronic resource or a sound file. Luckily MARC makes this easy, noting that most electronic resources are catalogued just as electronic resources, unluess they have another significant aspect. So, the 008 field for my record is for a sound file, not an electronic resource. Thatís just life. And those are the basic steps in cataloguing an MP3, which is actually kind of an interesting process.

33. Future Directions Continued movement away from vinyl and cassette to CD and MP3. Perhaps better integration of Chapters 6 and 9 of AACR2r for cataloguing MP3s. So finally, Iím going to talk about the future directions in sound cataloguing. The move from vinyl and cassette will continue. While a lot of libraries still have these in the collections, very few of them will still be actively collecting new materials in these formats. So, CD and MP3 is the way to go, with MP3 moving more and more into the spotlight. Currently, chapter 6 works well for cataloguing CDs, but what would be helpful is more integration with Chapter 9 to streamline cataloguing MP3s. This might encourage more libraries to include them in their catalogues rather than putting them in separate lists. Because itís the last day and because itís no fun to catalogue an MP3 from a print out of an ID3 tag, weíre going to skip working through an exercise. So, does anyone have any questions?So finally, Iím going to talk about the future directions in sound cataloguing. The move from vinyl and cassette will continue. While a lot of libraries still have these in the collections, very few of them will still be actively collecting new materials in these formats. So, CD and MP3 is the way to go, with MP3 moving more and more into the spotlight. Currently, chapter 6 works well for cataloguing CDs, but what would be helpful is more integration with Chapter 9 to streamline cataloguing MP3s. This might encourage more libraries to include them in their catalogues rather than putting them in separate lists. Because itís the last day and because itís no fun to catalogue an MP3 from a print out of an ID3 tag, weíre going to skip working through an exercise. So, does anyone have any questions?

34. References Barry, Randall K., 20 Library of Congress, and 20 American Library Association. 1991. ALA-LC romanization tables : Transliteration schemes for non-roman scripts. Washington: Cataloging Distribution Service, Library of Congress. Joint Steering Committee for Revision of AACR, and American Library Association. 2005. Anglo-american cataloguing rules. Ottawa; Chicago: Canadian Library Association; American Library Association. Freeborn, Robert B. Cataloging digital sound files: AACR2 chapters 6 and 9. 2002. Internet on-line. Available from <elibrary.unm.edu/catdept/training/digitalsoundfiles.ppt>. [November 10, 2005]. Freeborn, Robert B. 2002. Cataloguing MP3s: The Sound of Things to Come? MCJournal: The Journal of Academic Media Librarianship 7, no.2. Available from <http://wings.buffalo.edu/publications/mcjrnl/v7n2/freebornmp3.html>. [November 10, 2005].

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