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Observing How Habitable Conditions Develop (Or Not) in Protoplanetary Disks. ?. Colette Salyk National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Credit: JPL-Caltech/T. Pyle (SSC). Credit: NASA. Why studying protoplanetary disks is important for understanding habitability.

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observing how habitable conditions develop or not in protoplanetary disks

Observing How Habitable Conditions Develop (Or Not) in Protoplanetary Disks

?

Colette Salyk

National Optical Astronomy Observatory

Credit: JPL-Caltech/T. Pyle (SSC)

Credit: NASA

why studying protoplanetary disks is important for understanding habitability
Why studying protoplanetarydisks is important for understanding habitability
  • Planet formation “laboratory” – ground truth for our ideas about how planets form and habitability develops
slide4

Planet detection remains difficult at large distances, and characterization even more so

Milky way diameter: 40 kpc

(120,000 light years)

Microlensing planets: 5 kpc

Kepler planets: 2 kpc

Imaged planets: 0.2 kpc

Credit: Exoplanet app

why studying protoplanetary disks is important for understanding habitability1
Why studying protoplanetarydisks is important for understanding habitability
  • Planet formation “laboratory” – ground truth for our ideas about how planets form and habitability develops
  • Understanding formation process allows us to extrapolate to the rest of the galaxy/universe
slide6

Overview of what we do and don’t know about protoplanetary disks

  • Current studies of development of Goldilocks properties:
    • Location
    • Planet size and type
    • Chemistry
slide7

Opaque disks in Orion (Hubble)

Composed of gas and (opaque) dust, Few 100 AU in size

1800 AU

CO velocity in HD 163296 (ALMA)

de Gregorio-Monsalvo et al. 2013

slide8

Spitzer spectra of Si-O stretch

Small (but evolved) dust, consistent with olivine composition

Data

Models

Kessler-Silacci et al. 2006

Chondrule from American Museum of Natural History meteorite collection

slide9

Spitzer spectra of Si-O stretch

Small (but evolved) dust, consistent with olivine composition

Data

Models

Kessler-Silacci et al. 2006

Chondrule from American Museum of Natural History meteorite collection

slide10

Protoplanetary disks are ubiquitous*

Kraus & Ireland, 2011

*around sun-like stars in nearby star-forming regions

slide12

Masses are consistent with Minimum Mass Solar Nebula, or slightly lower

Ophiuchus data from Andrews et al. 2007

slide13

Masses are consistent with Minimum Mass Solar Nebula, or slightly lower

small

Ophiuchus data from Andrews et al. 2007

active research related to habitability
Active research related to habitability
  • Planet size and location: Snow lines and disk dispersal
  • Chemistry: Chemical inventories of planet forming regions
slide20

The “snow line”

Habitable zone

Terrestrial planets

Gas giants

first measured locations of snow lines in disks1

First measured locations of snow lines in disks

See poster by Sandra Blevins for an update!

Meijerink+ 2009

Zhang+ 2013

slide24

Planet type affected by disk dispersal

Terrestrial planets

Gas giants

Ice giants (super Earths?)

slide25

Dispersal of disk gas also affects planet migration

Snapshot of disk surface density

with planet undergoing migration

Hot Jupiters

# of

planets

1 10 100

Orbital Period [days]

P. Armitage

how do disks evolve disperse
How do disks evolve/disperse?

B

wind

Disk winds

accretion

Blandford & Payne 1982

Pudritz & Norman 1983

Cartoon inspired by Bai et al. 2013

slide27

Molecular emission lineshapes and images – evidence for disk winds?

Vibrational CO

ALMA CO velocity field

Flux

Velocity

Pontoppidan+ 2009; also Bast+ 2011

Salyk+ in prep

Brown+ 2013

how do disks evolve disperse1
How do disks evolve/disperse?

Photoevaporative winds

wind

FUV

EUV

X-ray

how do disks evolve disperse2
How do disks evolve/disperse?

Photoevaporative winds

wind

?

FUV

EUV

X-ray

Main open question: How quickly do disks dissipate at each disk radius?

slide30

Observations of photoevaporation tracers measure location and mass-loss

[Ne II] emission from two disks + models

Pascucci & Sterzik 2009

slide32

CI chondrite abundances vs. solar abundances

  • (R ~ 4 AU)

Solar data from Grevesse et al. 2010

Chondrite data from Allegre et al. 2001

slide33

Earth abundances vs. solar abundances

  • (R = 1 AU)

Solar data from Grevesse et al. 2010

Chondrite data from Allegre et al. 2001

slide34

Earth abundances vs. solar abundances

  • (R = 1 AU)

CO, CO2, organics, graphite?

N2, HCN, NH3, organics?

Solar data from Grevesse et al. 2010

Chondrite data from Allegre et al. 2001

what is the correct chemical pathway inheritance or reset

What is the correct chemical pathway? Inheritance or reset?

Maximum “reset”

Maximum “Inheritance”

slide36

Resemblance between cometary and cloud ice compositions = an inheritance assumption

Cloud abundance

% relative to water

Cometary abundance

% relative to water

Data from Mumma & Charnley 2011 (and references therein)

slide37

Evidence for reset in the solar system: CAIs and chondrules

Chondrule

Calcium Aluminum-rich Inclusion (CAI)

Thin sections from the American Museum of Natural History meteorite collection

slide38

The study of chemistry in inner disks was enabled by the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS)

Carr & Najita 2008

Also, Salyk+ 2008

slide40

Evidence for reset in disks: O,C,N inventory different from birth cloud

Salyk et al. 2011; Öberg et al. 2011

slide41

Evidence for reset in disks: Variability in disk chemistry

Banzatti et al. 2012

See poster by Andrea Banzatti

slide42

Current: Partial chemical inventory, evidence for reset

Yet to come: Chemical differences between disks, and as a function of radius

slide43

Conclusions

  • Basic protoplanetary disk properties have been characterized
  • Studies of development of Goldilocks properties ongoing:
    • Location
    • Planet size and type
    • Chemistry

Measuring snow lines

Observing disk evolution/dispersal

Chemical inventory in planet-forming regions, evidence for reset, details yet to come

Questions about observing disks?

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