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Observing How Habitable Conditions Develop (Or Not) in Protoplanetary Disks. ?. Colette Salyk National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Credit: JPL-Caltech/T. Pyle (SSC). Credit: NASA. Why studying protoplanetary disks is important for understanding habitability.

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Observing how habitable conditions develop or not in protoplanetary disks

Observing How Habitable Conditions Develop (Or Not) in Protoplanetary Disks

?

Colette Salyk

National Optical Astronomy Observatory

Credit: JPL-Caltech/T. Pyle (SSC)

Credit: NASA


Why studying protoplanetary disks is important for understanding habitability
Why studying protoplanetarydisks is important for understanding habitability

  • Planet formation “laboratory” – ground truth for our ideas about how planets form and habitability develops


Even if you don’t care how planets form…


Planet detection remains difficult at large distances, and characterization even more so

Milky way diameter: 40 kpc

(120,000 light years)

Microlensing planets: 5 kpc

Kepler planets: 2 kpc

Imaged planets: 0.2 kpc

Credit: Exoplanet app


Why studying protoplanetary disks is important for understanding habitability1
Why studying protoplanetarydisks is important for understanding habitability

  • Planet formation “laboratory” – ground truth for our ideas about how planets form and habitability develops

  • Understanding formation process allows us to extrapolate to the rest of the galaxy/universe


  • Overview of what we do and don’t know about protoplanetary disks

  • Current studies of development of Goldilocks properties:

    • Location

    • Planet size and type

    • Chemistry


Opaque disks in Orion (Hubble)

Composed of gas and (opaque) dust, Few 100 AU in size

1800 AU

CO velocity in HD 163296 (ALMA)

de Gregorio-Monsalvo et al. 2013


Spitzer spectra of Si-O stretch

Small (but evolved) dust, consistent with olivine composition

Data

Models

Kessler-Silacci et al. 2006

Chondrule from American Museum of Natural History meteorite collection


Spitzer spectra of Si-O stretch

Small (but evolved) dust, consistent with olivine composition

Data

Models

Kessler-Silacci et al. 2006

Chondrule from American Museum of Natural History meteorite collection


Protoplanetary disks are ubiquitous*

Kraus & Ireland, 2011

*around sun-like stars in nearby star-forming regions


Protoplanetary disks last a few Myr

Kraus & Ireland, 2011


Masses are consistent with Minimum Mass Solar Nebula, or slightly lower

Ophiuchus data from Andrews et al. 2007


Masses are consistent with Minimum Mass Solar Nebula, or slightly lower

small

Ophiuchus data from Andrews et al. 2007


Active research related to habitability
Active research related to habitability slightly lower

  • Planet size and location: Snow lines and disk dispersal

  • Chemistry: Chemical inventories of planet forming regions



What processes determine planetary size and location? slightly lower

Terrestrial planets

Gas giants


The “snow line” – an increase in solid surface density slightly lower

Terrestrial planets

Gas giants




The “snow line” slightly lower

Habitable zone

Terrestrial planets

Gas giants


Multi wavelength observations of water vapor measure snow line locations

Multi-wavelength observations of water vapor measure snow line locations

ice line

K. Pontoppidan


First measured locations of snow lines in disks

First measured locations of snow lines in disks line locations

Meijerink+ 2009

Zhang+ 2013


First measured locations of snow lines in disks1

First measured locations of snow lines in disks line locations

See poster by Sandra Blevins for an update!

Meijerink+ 2009

Zhang+ 2013


Planet type affected by disk dispersal line locations

Terrestrial planets

Gas giants

Ice giants (super Earths?)


Dispersal of line locationsdisk gas also affects planet migration

Snapshot of disk surface density

with planet undergoing migration

Hot Jupiters

# of

planets

1 10 100

Orbital Period [days]

P. Armitage


How do disks evolve disperse
How do disks evolve/disperse? line locations

B

wind

Disk winds

accretion

Blandford & Payne 1982

Pudritz & Norman 1983

Cartoon inspired by Bai et al. 2013


Molecular emission line locationslineshapes and images – evidence for disk winds?

Vibrational CO

ALMA CO velocity field

Flux

Velocity

Pontoppidan+ 2009; also Bast+ 2011

Salyk+ in prep

Brown+ 2013


How do disks evolve disperse1
How do disks evolve/disperse? line locations

Photoevaporative winds

wind

FUV

EUV

X-ray


How do disks evolve disperse2
How do disks evolve/disperse? line locations

Photoevaporative winds

wind

?

FUV

EUV

X-ray

Main open question: How quickly do disks dissipate at each disk radius?


Observations of line locationsphotoevaporation tracers measure location and mass-loss

[Ne II] emission from two disks + models

Pascucci & Sterzik 2009



  • CI line locationschondrite abundances vs. solar abundances

  • (R ~ 4 AU)

Solar data from Grevesse et al. 2010

Chondrite data from Allegre et al. 2001


Solar data from Grevesse et al. 2010

Chondrite data from Allegre et al. 2001


CO, CO2, organics, graphite?

N2, HCN, NH3, organics?

Solar data from Grevesse et al. 2010

Chondrite data from Allegre et al. 2001


What is the correct chemical pathway inheritance or reset

What is the correct chemical pathway? line locations Inheritance or reset?

Maximum “reset”

Maximum “Inheritance”


Resemblance between line locationscometary and cloud ice compositions = an inheritance assumption

Cloud abundance

% relative to water

Cometary abundance

% relative to water

Data from Mumma & Charnley 2011 (and references therein)


Evidence for reset in the solar system: line locationsCAIs and chondrules

Chondrule

Calcium Aluminum-rich Inclusion (CAI)

Thin sections from the American Museum of Natural History meteorite collection


The study of chemistry in inner disks was enabled by the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS)

Carr & Najita 2008

Also, Salyk+ 2008


O,C,N inventory in inner disks is being measured Spitzer

O C N

Fraction

Pontoppidan+ 2014


Evidence for reset in disks: O,C,N inventory different from birth cloud

Salyk et al. 2011; Öberg et al. 2011


Evidence for reset in disks: Variability in disk chemistry birth cloud

Banzatti et al. 2012

See poster by Andrea Banzatti


Current: Partial chemical inventory, evidence for reset birth cloud

Yet to come: Chemical differences between disks, and as a function of radius


Conclusions birth cloud

  • Basic protoplanetary disk properties have been characterized

  • Studies of development of Goldilocks properties ongoing:

    • Location

    • Planet size and type

    • Chemistry

Measuring snow lines

Observing disk evolution/dispersal

Chemical inventory in planet-forming regions, evidence for reset, details yet to come

Questions about observing disks?


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