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บทที่ 1 ความรู้เบื้องต้นเกี่ยวกับเศรษฐศาสตร์ PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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บทที่ 1 ความรู้เบื้องต้นเกี่ยวกับเศรษฐศาสตร์. ผศ.สมพงษ์ มหิงสพันธุ์. เศรษฐศาสตร์คืออะไร.

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บทที่ 1 ความรู้เบื้องต้นเกี่ยวกับเศรษฐศาสตร์

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Economics is the study of how people and society end up choosing with or without the use of money, to employ scarce productive resources that could have alternative uses, to produce various commodities anddistribute them for consumption now or in the future among various persons and groups in society.

5


Resources

(Resources)

(Human Resources)

(Non-human Resources)

(Man-made Resources) (Capital goods)

(Natural Resources)


Production

(Production)

(Form Utility)

(Time Utility)

(Place Utility)

(Ownership Utility)

(Production is the creation of utilities) 4


1

(Primary Goods) (Raw Material) (Finished Goods) 4

(Land)

(Labor)

(Capital)

(Entrepreneur) 3 (Decision Maker) (Risk Taker)


Commodities

(Goods and Services)

(Utility)

(Commodities)


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(Free Goods)

(Economic Goods)

(Public Goods)

(Private Goods)


Distribution

(Distribution is the allocation of income among the factors of production)

(Rent)

(Wage)

(Interest)

(Profit)

(Distribution)


Exchange

(Exchange)

(Exchange is the transfer of title or ownership) (Barter)


Consumption

(Consumption)

(Consumption is the use of economic goods in satisfying human wants) (Economic Activity)

(Consumption is the sole end and purpose of all production)


Wants

(Wants)

(Private Wants)

(Public Wants)

(Social Wants)

(Merit Wants)

(Mixed Wants)

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1

8


1

(Micro Economics)

(Micro Economics)


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(Macro Economics)

(Macro Economics)


1

(Fallacy of Composition)

( 10)


Economic law

(Economic Law)

(Hypothesis)


Economic assumption

(Economic assumption)

1.

Economic Rationality

2.

Ceteris Paribus

Other Things Being Equal


Methodology of economic analysis

(Methodology of Economic Analysis)

2.

2


Positive economics

(Positive Economics)

(What was) (What is) (What will be) 2

1.1 (Inductive Method)

(Facts) (Theory)

1.2 (Deductive Method)


Normative economics

(Normative Economics)

(What ought be)


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4

(1) (Definitions)

(2) (Assumption)

(3) (Hypothesis)

(4) (Prediction)


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( Definitions) ( Assumption )

( Process of Logical Deduction)

( Conclusion or Implication)

( Process of Actual Opservation )


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  • ( Function) ( Variable )

( Function ) F f

C = f ( Yd)

( Variable )


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2

( 1 ) ( Flow variable )

( period of time )

( 2 ) ( Stock variable )


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(Table)

1

2


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Y

+Y

I

II

X

X

+X

X

IV

III

Y

Y

(Graph)

. (axis) 2 Y (y axis) X (x axis)

(origin)


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A

10

B

8

C

6

D

4

2

()

0

2

4

6

8

.


1

0

0

0

(a) positive constant slope

(b) positive increasing slope

(c) positive decreasing slope

.

(upward slope)


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(downward slope)

0

0

0

(a) negative constant slope (b) negative decreasing slope ( c ) negative increasing slope


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Y

X

. (slope)

Y ( y) X ( x )

slope=

slope = tangent


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Y

X

Y

X

3

4

3

4

Y

Y

(a)

(b)

Slope = - 3/4

Slope = 3/4

8

8

7

7

6

6

5

5

Y= 3

Y = 3

4

4

3

3

X = 4

X = 4

2

2

1

1

X

X

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

(a) = =

= tangent

(b) = =-


1

Y

Y

3

4

(a) (b)

7

7

6

6

5

5

B

4

4

A

3

3

Y=1.5

C

2

2

X=2

1

1

0

0

X

X

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

(a) A A A

- = - = -

6

8

3

4

Y

X

(b) BC B C BC

= - = - = -

1.5

2

Y

X


1

.

(Total Value , Average Value and Marginal Value)

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1.

2. 1 1

3. 1


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(Trade Off)

(Opportunity Cost)

(Rational Man) (Marginal Concept)


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4.

5.

6. (Invisible Hand)

7.


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(Productivity)

(Inflation)

(G) (C) (Phillips Curve)


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