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Out of the Lab and Into the Air: Peter Hobbs and the Physics and Dynamics of Real Clouds Robert A. Houze, Jr. University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Peter V. Hobbs Symposium, New Orleans, January 24, 2008. Mason’s Influence. The Physics of Clouds Sir John Mason, D. Sc., F. R. S.

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Out of the Lab and Into the Air:Peter Hobbs and the Physics and Dynamics of Real Clouds

Robert A. Houze, Jr.

University of Washington, Seattle, WA

Peter V. Hobbs Symposium, New Orleans, January 24, 2008



The Physics of Clouds

Sir John Mason, D. Sc., F. R. S.

Preface to 1957 Edition:

“Although the emphasis here is on themicro-physicalprocesses, it is important to recognize that these are largely controlled by the atmospheric motions which are manifest in clouds. These macro-physical features…might more properly be called a dynamics…Progress in cloud physics has been hindered by a poor appreciation of these interrelations between processes ranging from nucleation phenomena on the molecular scale to the dynamics of extensive cloud systems on the scale of hundreds or thousands of kilometres.

“…Because I am convinced that future progress will be largely governed by our improved understanding of cloud dynamics, I hope that the next few years will see a greatly increased effort in this direction…Cloud dynamics will, I hope …form the subject of a separate volume…”

B. J. M., London


The Physics of Clouds

Sir John Mason, D. Sc., F. R. S.

Preface to 1971 Edition:

“…in the preceding preface written thirteen years ago, reference was made to the…importance of acquiring a much deeper understanding of the cloud dynamics…The hopes expressed then for much greater effort and progress in this direction, and for the appearance of a major text on this aspect of the subject, have yet to be realized…”

B. J. M., Bracknell



Getting out of the lab and into the clouds by going to the top of a mountain, 1966

We need a bigger plane…



Peter’s Love Affair with Ice airplane, the B-23 in 1968


Peter’s Opus, 1974 airplane, the B-23 in 1968


Mountainside airplane, the B-23 in 1968

Aircraft

Hobbs (1973)

Aggregates in the real atmosphere


Rimed & Unrimed Aggregates airplane, the B-23 in 1968

Graupel

Hobbs (1973)

Fall velocities of real ice particles



Hobbs (1969) airplane, the B-23 in 1968

Measurements on Mt. Olympus

104

103

Ratio of particles to ice nuclei

102

10

–2

–14

–26

Estimated Cloud Top Temperature (ºC)


10 airplane, the B-23 in 19684

103

102

Maximum ice particle

Concentration (per liter)

101

10

10-1

Cloud Top Temperature (ºC)

Hobbs (1976)

Measurements aboard the B-23


Hobbs and Rangno (1985) airplane, the B-23 in 1968

Aircraft measurements in various midlatitude clouds


Rangno and Hobbs (2005) airplane, the B-23 in 1968

Measurements in tropical convective clouds over the West Pacific

Largest ice concentration ever observed by Peter ~1000 per liter


Ice Particles in Relation to Cloud airplane, the B-23 in 1968Macro-structure


Matejka, Houze, and Hobb(1980) airplane, the B-23 in 1968 Frontal Clouds


Hobbs and Rangno (1985) airplane, the B-23 in 1968

Midlatitude Cumulonimbus


Hobbs and Rangno (1985) airplane, the B-23 in 1968

Development of Stratus


Peter Hobbs: Radar Pioneer? airplane, the B-23 in 1968


1973 airplane, the B-23 in 1968


Warm advection seen by color display of airplane, the B-23 in 1968NCAR CP-3 radar deployed in Washington

CYCLES PROJECT

Use of Single-Doppler Color Display

Baynton, Serafin, Frush, Gray, Hobbs, Houze, Locatelli (1977)


9 mm cloud radar reflectivity showing fallstreaks in a warm frontal zone

e from soundings

CYCLES PROJECT

Locatelli and Hobbs (1987)


IMPROVE Project frontal zone

2001

NCAR S-Pol on a mountain and NOAA S-Prof in a valley


IMPROVE Project frontal zone

Woods, Stoelinga, Locatelli, and Hobbs (2005)


IMPROVE Project frontal zone

Woods, Stoelinga, Locatelli, and Hobbs (2005)


IMPROVE Project frontal zone

Fearless, no-holds-barred-science


  • LEGACY frontal zone

  • Characteristics of ice particles in real precipitating clouds (fallspeeds, aggregation,…)

  • High ice particle concentrations (negates the importance of the “ice crystal process” as a precipitation mechanism)

  • Ice particle concentrations and characteristics in relation to “macro-structure” of real of clouds (stratus to convection, tropics to arctic, over oceans, land, and mountains)


Peter Hobbs frontal zone

1936-2005


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