Peripheral chemoreceptor responsiveness and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction
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Peripheral Chemoreceptor Responsiveness and Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction. Tyler J. Albert, M.D. Senior Medical Resident Chief of Medicine Rounds November 23, 2010. 3 Years of Preparation. Intern year:

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Peripheral chemoreceptor responsiveness and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

Peripheral Chemoreceptor Responsiveness and Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction

Tyler J. Albert, M.D.

Senior Medical Resident

Chief of Medicine Rounds

November 23, 2010


3 years of preparation
3 Years of Preparation

  • Intern year:

    • Transformed outpatient rotations into transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) practice sessions

  • R2 year:

    • Successfully ran the gauntlet of the VA IRB from Boise, ID

  • R3 year:

    • 8 weeks of research


Important terminology
Important Terminology

  • Hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR):

    • Increase in ventilation due to a decrease in PaO2

    • Mediated by peripheral chemoreceptors in the carotid body and aortic arch

  • Isocapnic HVR:

    • Fixed CO2 levels, isolating hypoxemia

  • Poikilocapnic HVR:

    • Variable CO2 levels, physiologic but confounding


Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction hpv
Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction (HPV)

  • Vasomotor response to alveolar hypoxia

  • Mediates ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) matching

    • optimizes PaO2 by reducing low V/Q fraction

  • Intrinsic to the lung

  • Focal with disease (PNA, atelectasis)

  • Global with hypoxia (altitude, hypoventilation)



Background
Background

Denervation of peripheral chemoreceptors in animals, diminishing HVR, increases HPV

Carotid body ablation

Chemical sympathectomy

Naeije et al. JAP 66:42, 1989


Hypothesis
Hypothesis

Individuals with high HVR

have less HPV in response to

low alveolar oxygen (PAO2).


Methods measuring hvr
Methods: Measuring HVR

  • Recorded HVR (∆ minute ventilation/∆ SaO2)over 15 min of poikilocapnic hypoxia (0.21 to 0.12 FIO2)

  • Used nitrogen to drop the FIO2

  • Monitored:

    - SaO2 - Minute ventilation

    - HR - End-tidal CO2 (EtCO2)

    - BP -ECG



Methods measuring hpv
Methods: Measuring HPV

  • Screened for tricuspid regurgitation with TTE

  • Pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) recorded by echosonographer

    • Bernoulli’s equation (∆P=4V2)

    • Subjects randomly at FIO2 = 0.21, 0.18, 0.15 and 0.12, each x 15 min

  • Echosonographer blinded to FIO2

  • PASP recorded at SaO2 = 85%

    • Provided a common PAO2 stimulus, using SaO2 as a surrogate for alveolar oxygenation



Results
Results

  • 15 healthy subjects

    • 11 men, 4 women

  • Age: 26-37, mean 29.4 years

  • Baseline SaO2: 95-98, mean 97%

  • Baseline EtCO2: 37-42, mean 39 mmHg

  • Baseline PASP: 14-30, mean 23 mmHg


Results1
Results

  • Good range of HVRs (0.05-0.3 L/min/%SaO2)

    • Correlates with previously published data

  • EtCO2 dropped as expected with increasing HVR (p=0.035)


Hvr correlates with hpv
HVR correlates with HPV

p = 0.01

R2 = 0.41


Conclusion
Conclusion

  • HVR and HPV are inversely related

    • Direct correlation between peripheral chemoreceptor response and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in healthy subjects

  • Consistent with animal models showing a modulating influence on HPV by peripheral chemoreceptor activation

  • First demonstration of this phenomenon in humans


Limitations
Limitations

  • Poikilocapnic HVR

    • Confounding from low CO2

    • Hypocapnia itself lowers HPV

  • Inaccuracy of TTE

    • Variable correlation with PASP by catheterization, does not measure pulmonary vascular resistance

    • VA IRB and subjects (co-residents) less likely to approve Swan-Ganz catheter


What s next
What’s Next

  • We identified a contributor to HPV, which could lead to targeted therapies

    • If isolated, we could stimulate breathing and alter pulmonary resistance in pulmonary hypertension, high altitude pulmonary edema, etc.

    • Almitrine: evidence for evoking increased carotid body activity

  • Oxford: customized chamber for isocapnic HVR and HPV measurement


References
References

Naeije R, LeJeune P, Leeman M, Melot C, Closset J. Pulmonary vascular responses to surgical chemodenervation and chemical sympathectomy in dogs. J Appl Physiol. 1989 Jan;66(1):42-50.

Steinback CD, Poulin MJ. Ventilatory responses to isocapnic and poikilocapnic hypoxia in humans. RespirPhysiolNeurobiol. 2007 Feb 15;155(2):104-13.

Dorrington KL, Talbot NP. Human pulmonary vascular responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia. Pflugers Arch. 2004 Oct;449(1):1-15. 

Duffin J. Measuring the ventilatory response to hypoxia. J Physiol. 2007 Oct 1;584(Pt 1):285-93.

Moudgil R, Michelakis ED, Archer SL. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. J Appl Physiol. 2005 Jan;98(1):390-403. 

Teppema LJ, Dahan A. The ventilatory response to hypoxia in mamals: mechanisms, measurement, and analysis. Physiol Rev. 2010;90:675-754.

Aaronson PI, Robertson TP, Knock GA, et al. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction: mechanisms and controversies. J Physiol. 2006;570(1):53-58.


Thank you
Thank you

Erik Swenson

Patricia Sills

VA Respiratory Therapists

New Saigon Deli

Andy Luks


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