Ergonomics in tennis racket
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ERGONOMICS IN TENNIS RACKET. ARNOULD Benjamin GREGORZKI Brice MOUFFLARD Paul RODRIGUES Chris. What do you know about tennis racket ?. According to you , what the ancestor of tennis ? W hat is the date of tennis racket creation ? Why there are oversized kind of rackets ?

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ERGONOMICS IN TENNIS RACKET

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ERGONOMICS IN TENNIS RACKET

ARNOULD Benjamin

GREGORZKI Brice

MOUFFLARD Paul

RODRIGUES Chris


What do you know about tennis racket ?

  • According to you, what the ancestor of tennis ?

  • Whatis the date of tennis racket creation ?

  • Whythere are oversizedkind of rackets ?

  • What are the ergonomicsinvolvement in Rackets ?


History of tennis racket

  • Appeared with the Jeu de Paume, the first wooden racket was created in 1505

  • Tennis was born at the end of the XIXth century

  • The second sport practiced in France : 1 102 921 members in 8 217 affiliate clubs in 2011


Regulations and Standards

  • Size

    • They are defined by the rules of the ITF International Tennis Federation

  • Standardization of the racket

    • NF ISO 11416 defines the components and physical parameters and terminology to be adopted by all manufacturers


Evolution of Tennis RacketUntil the 1930s : The Wood

  • Headsize : substantially spherical or square 16.2 cm in width and 16.5 cm in length.

  • The grip is made of wood and cork or bare does not have octagonal shape with flat surfaces and chamfers.

  • The strings is natural gut of sheep or beef.

  • Design is almost absent.


Evolution of Tennis RacketFrom the 1930s to 1960s : the classicism and laminatedwood

  • Leather grip

  • Strings are always in naturalgut of sheep.

  • Nylon appearedat the end of the 50’s.


Evolution of Tennis RacketThe seventies : the changes

  • Metal frames easier to produce.

  • Wood frames change to double branchwithstillsmallhead.

  • The grip stretch out for the twohand’s flip side.

  • First frames in fiber

  • The synthetics strings becomewidespread

  • Bighead patent (PRINCE) in 1976


Evolution of Tennis RacketThe 1980’s : carbonfibers, composites

  • Increasing power of composite racquets

  • Progressive disappearance of wood

  • Research new forms : midsize and largesize head

  • Design more pronounced

  • Commercial life is reduced

  • Metal for the average range


Evolution of Tennis RacketThe 1990’s : Supremacy of composite

  • Generalization of composites

  • Supremacy of midsizehead

  • Relegation of metal

  • Simplifications of forms

  • Development of technicals concepts

  • Aerodynamism, flexibility, rigidity, new headsize design

  • Kid/Adultcompleteassortment


Evolution of Tennis Racket2000 : Explosion of technology

  • Generalization of midsizehead

  • New technology innovation

  • Specialcolor and design

  • Carbon nanotube


Headsize racket

  • Length : 39,7 cm max

  • Width : 29,21 cm max

  • Surface : 709,67 cm² max


Weight and Length

  • Weight for children and beginners :

    • Varies between 200 g and 270 g

  • Juniors and competitors :

    • Varies between 270 and 360 – 370 g

  • The length:

    • Children : varies from 50 to 67,5 cms

    • Adult : varies from 68,5 to 71 cms


Accessory

  • Anti-vibrator :

    • Reduce and absorbshocks to avoid injuries

  • Grip and sur-grip :

    • Absorb the perspiration

    • Better sensation

  • Stip of lead :

    • Modify the weight and the balance for better adaptation of player


Innovation withneither future

  • Over time, more or less fanciful innovations have been created

  • INPI and “google patents” data bases give the latest and other more traditional.


Example of innovation withneither future

  • Brian Battistone, is the first playerwhoplayswith racket withtwo grips. He reachedwithhis racket the 853 th in single and the 88 th rank mondial in double ranking.


Future

  • The rules of raquet size are frozen and limitedcreativity

  • Main innovation trail are :

    • Material

    • Manage vibrations control

    • Stringing

    • Accessory (tennis racket cover, bag…)


Future

  • Play and connect :

    • Captorswhich records

      • Movements

      • Ball’seffect

      • Power striking


Bibliography and references

  • http://blog-tennis-concept.com/

  • http://fft.fr/

  • http://www.tcvv.fr/


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