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UNIT 4 Standard No:23 LESSON 2

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UNIT 4

Standard No:23

LESSON 2

ELECRICITY

types of circuits

Series Circuit

Parallel Circuit

Ammeter

جهازقياس شدة التيار

Voltmeter

جهازقياس الجهد الكهربائي

Series Circuit

دارة متسلسلة

Parallel Circuit

دارة متوازية

There are 2 types of circuits

Parallel Circuit

Series Circuit

Series Circuit: the components are lined up along one path.

If the circuit is broken, all components turn off.

Parallel Circuit – there are several branching paths to the components. If the circuit is broken at any one branch, only the components on that branch will turn off.

There are 2 types of circuits

Parallel Circuit

Series Circuit

Parallel Circuit – there are several branching paths to the components. If the circuit is broken at any one branch, only the components on that branch will turn off

Series Circuit: the components are lined up along one path.

If the circuit is broken,

all components turn off.

Series circuit

- In series circuit with two lamps, if one breaks the other goes out, too

Parallel circuits

In a parallel circuit with lamps on separate wires, if one breaks the other stays lit

measuring current

Electric current is measured by sing an………………………..connected

in ....................in the circuit.

Activity:

1- Use the items you have and make complete circuit

2- Add the ammeter to the circuit .

3- Did the reading in the ammeter change? ……….

A

Electric current :

A

The number of electrons

moving through a circuit.

The electrons carry electrical energy.

measuring current

SERIES CIRCUIT

- current is the same
- at all points in the
- circuit.

2A

2A

2A

PARALLEL CIRCUIT

2A

2A

- current is shared
- between the
- components

1.5A

0.5A

Electric current :

The number of electrons moving through a circuit.

The electrons carry electrical energy.

measuring potential difference

Potential difference is measured by sing a……………………….. connected in .................... in the circuit.

Activity:

1- Use the items you have and make complete circuit

2- Add the Voltmeter to the circuit .

3- Did the reading in the voltmeter change? ……….

V

Potential difference :

It is the difference in electrical energy between two parts of a circuit, measured in Volts.

It is provided by a source (battery) which causes the current to move through the circuit.

V

measuring potential difference

SERIES CIRCUIT

voltage is shared

between the components

3V

3V

3V

PARALLEL CIRCUIT

voltage is the same

in all parts of the circuit.

1V

2V

3V

(Potential Difference (voltage

It is the difference in electrical energy between two parts of a circuit.

It is provided by a source (battery) which causes the current to move through the circuit.

Activity1

Write the missing numbers of volts and ampere:

a)

6V

4A

A

V

V

A

b)

6V

4A

A

V

A

V

A

ACTIVITY 2:

Use the table below to draw a graph between the current and the potential difference.

10

8

6

4

2

potential differences

current

0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Direct proportion علاقة طردية

potential differences

R =

current

R depends over the wire so it was called Resistance and it’s measurement unit is ohm Ω

Ohm’s law :

V

I

R

In electrical circuits, Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference across the two points, and inversely proportional to the resistance between them.

Georg Simon Ohm (16 March 1789 – 6 July 1854)

was a German physicist. As a high school teacher, Ohm began his research with the recently invented electrochemical cell, invented by Italian Count Alessandro Volta. Using equipment of his own creation, Ohm determined that there is a direct proportionality between the potential difference (voltage) applied across a conductor and the resultant electric current – now known as Ohm's law.

V

I

R

V

What is the amount of current (I) in this circuit?

V

V

I

R

V

What is the amount of resistance (R) offered by the lamp?

V

So Ohm was named after the scientist

Home work

Find out where did the words volt and ampere came from ?

Adding resistances in series

- Each resistance in a series circuit adds to the total resistance of the circuit.

Rtotal = R1 + R2 + R3...

Total resistance

(ohms)

Individual resistances (Ω)

Open physics for you pg:208 -209 and try to solve problems

Example 1 and 2

Review

ACTIVITY :

The flow of electrical charge around a circuit is called the…

a) raisin.

b) battery.

c) current.

The symbol represents which electrical component?

a) A switch.

b) A bulb.

c) An ammeter

Review

ACTIVITY :

Look at each diagram below, If you think the bulb or bulbs will light, put a tick in the box. If you do not think the bulb or bulbs will light, put a cross in the box:-

A

End of lesson2