Social interaction and social structure
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 67

Social Interaction and Social Structure PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 279 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Social Interaction and Social Structure. Chapter 5. Why should we choose these guys?. I. Social Structure = . *** Football : players and setting vary - all teams have common structure . What does football teach us for sociology?. * establishes relationships * identified by that job

Download Presentation

Social Interaction and Social Structure

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Social interaction and social structure

Social Interaction and Social Structure

Chapter 5


Why should we choose these guys

Why should we choose these guys?


I social structure

I. Social Structure =

  • *** Football: players and setting vary - all teams have common structure


What does football teach us for sociology

What does football teach us for sociology?

  • * establishes relationships

  • * identified by that job

  • * to get anything done, all must work together and follow the rules


Social interaction and social structure

  • * sanctions for those who do follow the rules

  • * each ‘season’ new people join the team but structure is the same

  • * social structure does not determine outcome!!!


Social interaction and social structure

  • * can add plays or improvise depending on players

  • * without structure, the team would be a bunch of individuals that never get the goal accomplished


I social structure1

I. Social Structure

  • A. coordinates individual activities, provides continuity, allows for spontaneity , gives framework (rules)


B social structure affects people

B. Social structure affects people

  • 1. roles of husband, wife, mother, lover, worker change based on structure

  • a. affects attitude, behavior, individual characteristics, temperaments


2 roles are part of larger institutions

2. Roles are part of larger institutions:

  • a. roles of student/professor 

education

b. roles of husband/wife 

family

c. roles of producer/ consumer 

economy


3 linked together to form society

3. Linked together to form society

professor

Husband/Wife

Producer

Consumer

child/student


C microperspective

C. Microperspective

  • 1. looking at players, their roles, their relationships, etc.

how it affects the game


D macroperspective

D. Macroperspective =

1. e.g. analyze different roles the NFL, college football, TV, ads, and fans play in professional football

  • looks at overall patterns and trends

* a. what rules govern their relations

*b.what happens when rules bent or broken


F evolution of society from the macroperspective

F. Evolution of Society from the macroperspective

  • 1. Hunter-Gatherer Society 

  • main focus on acquiring food for subsistence living;

  • little domestication of animals;

  • many are nomads


2 horticultural pastoral

2. Horticultural/Pastoral

  • Horticultural Society 

  • Simple gardening; small tribes/villages

  • Family the most important


Continued

Continued

  • domesticated animals;

  • some people of tribe allowed to specialize (i.e. healer, craftsperson…);

  • Male dominated

  • The sexual division of labor is sharply marked in pastoralist societies

  • .Status of women still high


3 agricultural society

3. Agricultural Society 

  • use of technology to grow crops;

  • food surpluses leads to bigger populations which led to development of towns and trade;

  • women start to lower in status;

  • social classes begin (nobility = land)


4 industrial society

4. Industrial Society 

  • Industrial Revolution began the use of machines to produce goods;

  • tradesmen lost identities in factories;

  • factory owners get rich;

  • standard of living raises;


Social interaction and social structure

  • public education rises;

  • public health gets better;

  • cities problems arise;

  • struggles between working and wealthy classes arise


Social interaction and social structure

  • 5. Postindustrial Society 

  • based on information, knowledge, and the selling of services;

  • computer has revolutionized what is valued – now power comes from ability to generate, store, manipulate and sell information


Ii social relationships

II. Social Relationships

  • A. Relationships = basic building blocks of social structure

1. direct personal contact – most influence

2. indirect less contact but still has influence


3 bureaucracy weber

3. Bureaucracy (Weber)

  • efficient organization of work based on skills and hierarchy


Status and roles changing of the social structure

Status and Roles – Changing of the Social Structure


B durkheim s analysis of suicide

B. Durkheim’s Analysis of Suicide


1 suicide not linked to mental illness

1. Suicide not linked to mental illness

a. women outnumbered men 5 to 4 in mental institutions but only makeup a small percentage of suicides


2 race or genetic makeup did not predispose members to suicide

2. Race or genetic makeup did not predispose members to suicide

a. variations within groups were as varied as between


3 environment made no difference

3. Environment made no difference

  • majority of suicides in all countries took place in daylight during summer months

- i.e. places such as Sweden that have short days and long winters did not make people gloomy and suicidal


4 4 types of suicide

4. 4 types of Suicide

—Egoistic, Altruistic, Anomic, and Fatalistic—each linked to distinct set of social circumstances


Egoistic excessive individualism

Egoistic = excessive individualism

  • when people do not feel attached to a group/community that commands participation then easier to opt out

ii. Catholics have lower suicide rate: rules clear, everyone shared them, so all a part of “mother Church”

iii. Explains why suicide rates go down in times of war: war unites people against a common enemy, creating a heightened sense of togetherness


B altruistic excessive attachment to community

b. Altruistic = excessive attachment to community

  • when the group becomes more important than life, the individual is willing to sacrifice himself for its needs

  • soldiers and Japanese have high suicide rate: save face or honor


C anomic breakdown of collective order

c. Anomic = breakdown of collective order

i. anomie = Greek word for “lawlessness”

ii. any major disruption of way of life (for better or worse) is stressful

- people depend on these guidelines to order their lives

iii. guidelines for behavior and standards are fuzzy

iv. that is why in economic depressions or booms, suicide goes up


D fatalistic too much control by social guidelines

d. Fatalistic = too much control by social guidelines

  • occurs in societies that exercise a high degree of control over their members’ emotions and motivations

  • people kill themselves out of hopelessness and over manipulation


C status and roles social script

C. Status and Roles: social script

  • 1. status = a position an individual occupies in society

a. achieved =

attained through personal effort (senator, loser, etc.)

b. ascribed =

assigned at birth (race, gender)


Monty python and status

Monty Python and Status

  • http://youtu.be/5Xd_zkMEgkI


Social interaction and social structure

c. master status =

social position that tends to override everything else the person is or does in life


2 role

2. role =

obligations and expectations

that accompany status


Roles

Roles


A role conflict

a. role conflict =

  • occurs when different positions make incompatible demands

e.g. Working mother


Social groups

Social Groups


D network

D. Network =

  • web of relationships that connects an individual to many other people

1. Structure of network affects efficiency and relationships


1 clique

1. Clique

  • = everyone is connected to everyone else


Effect of an efficient clique

Effect of an efficient clique


2 orbit

2. Orbit

  • = one person serves as the connection to all others


3 chain

3. Chain

  • = connections become increasingly distant


4 ring

4. Ring

= each person has more than one connection


End result of a positive and efficient network

End Result of a positive and efficient network…


E social interaction

E. Social Interaction

  • 1. from superficial to complex

  • a. formal: such as a job interview

  • b. free form: such as when 2 kids meet on the playground


Conversations strangers are not supposed to have

Conversations strangers are not supposed to have…

French Kiss


Social interaction and social structure

  • c. before speaking or acting we size up the person next to us

  • d. Rules for conversations with strangers: weather, common complaint (airline), reasons for both being there

  • i. Never fight, embrace, talk about intimate subjects with stranger


F american bubble space norms

F. American Bubble = Space Norms


1 public distance

1. Public Distance

  • = 12 feet or more: public speaker


2 social distance

2. Social Distance

  • = 4-7 feet: Impersonal business, interviews, purchasing products


3 personal distance

3. Personal Distance

  • = 18 inches to 4 feet: conversation distance, friends, family, social interaction


4 intimate distance

4. Intimate Distance

  • = 0 to 18 inches: lovemaking to wrestling; conflict usually takes place

* conflict can be escalated by invading someone’s personal spaces—another form of insult


3 symbolic interactionism compare to stage

3. Symbolic Interactionism: compare to stage

  • a. Goffman: behavior is different at a formal dinner than sitting at home with parents

i. “Frontstage”  public front

ii. “Backstage”  private behavior


Iii we are all putting on an act

iii. We are all putting on an act

Can’t Buy Me Love


Iii social identity

III. social identity =

  • our sense of who and what we are (comes from roles we play, idealized version of who we would like to be)

http://youtu.be/Wpr6QgQco6c


A fashion and fitness look the part

A. Fashion and Fitness Look the part

  • 1. Fashion is to reveal at a glance what kind of person each is

  • b. e.g. man wearing wire-rimmed glasses & old tweed jacket sees himself or wants others to see him as an intellectual

  • a. e.g. woman with tailored suit and suitcase attempts to project image of respectability


2 all societies use clothing to distinguish groups of people

2. All societies use clothing to distinguish groups of people

  • 3. Fashion different than style

  • a. defines age, social group, beliefs/values


4 conflict fred davis holds that fashion is a way to deal with cultural conflicts

4. Conflict: Fred Davis holds that fashion is a way to deal with cultural conflicts:

  • youth versus age

conformity vs. individualism

masculine vs. feminine

work versus play

success vs. failure

snobs vs. nobodies


A women s office clothing

a. Women’s office clothing:

  • 70s—“dress for success”

80s—confusion over women/men

90s—gender ambivalence resurfaced—power suits

00s- sex becomes a weapon


B bodies slim fit youthful sexy

B. Bodies: slim, fit, youthful, & sexy

Values: Hard work, self worth, pride, beauty


1 ideal body based on advertising models

1. Ideal body based on advertising (models)

Photoshop Beauty


Social interaction and social structure

  • 2. Fitness ideal—reflects values of hard work, self-control, achievement, and prosperity

  • 3. Economy--$50 billion/year on diets, makeup, plastic surgery, health clubs, and workout equipment


Social interaction and social structure

  • a. * Studies show that overweight, non-athletic, not-very-beautiful applicants are discriminated against

  • “You can never be too rich or too thin.”—Fitness represents social class


C face work

C. Face-Work =

  • everyone is trying to give an impression—others help maintain this

  • * professor or someone dignified passes gas or trips

  • 1. Examples: * if you see someone in public is about to cry then you turn away or feel uncomfortable


2 norm of reciprocity

2. norm of reciprocity =

  • norm that demands that people respond equally to certain behavior

a. e.g. thank you cards for gifts, invitation for an invitation, greeting for a greeting


Social interaction and social structure

b. we are uncomfortable around someone who is far more or less good looking, intelligent, wealthy, or talented—exchange is unequal


  • Login