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NON-LETHAL WEAPONS USE IN PRIVATE SECURITY. Aleksandar Pašagić General Security d.o.o., Zagreb, CROATIA, aleksandar@ generalsecurity.hr. 4 th International Conference Ergonomics 2010. Operating environment. Types of operating environment for a security officer :

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Non lethal weapons use in private security

NON-LETHAL WEAPONS USE IN PRIVATE SECURITY

Aleksandar Pašagić

General Security d.o.o., Zagreb, CROATIA, [email protected]

4th International Conference

Ergonomics2010


Operating environment
Operatingenvironment

Types of operatingenvironment for a securityofficer:

lowthreathighthreat

Availableoptionsvaryaccording to the demands of the environment


Use of force continuum
Use of forcecontinuum

1) securityofficer’s presence

2) verbalcommands

3) hands on/physicalrestrainttechniques(including the use of a batonwhereapplicable)

4) OC spray/EMI device(whereapplicable)

5) firearm(whereapplicable)

Options are always a compromisebetweeneffectiveness and liability

Number of incidentscorresponds to the inverse use of forcecontinuum

Escalatingforceimpliesincreasedliability


Public image important issue for private security companies
Public image – importantissue for privatesecuritycompanies

Objectives:

  • project a civilized image

  • distance the companyfromexcessivelyaggressive image

  • avoidnegative publicityassociatedwithviolence


Public image important issue for private security companies1
Public image – importantissue for privatesecuritycompanies

Objectivesachievedthroughreductionin use of force


Non lethal weapons
Non-lethalWeapons

Compromisebetweeneffectiveness and minimal use of force: Non-LethalWeapons

Definition:

“… weapons … explicitlydesigned and primarilyemployed … to incapacitatepersonnel or materiel, whileminimizingfatalities, permanentinjury to personnel, and undesireddamage to property and the environment”

- United States Department of DefensePolicyDirective 3000.3, Policy for Non-LethalWeapons, July 9, 1996

Alternative terminology – Less-LethalWeapons


Nlw classes currently available to private security companies
NLW classescurrentlyavailable to privatesecuritycompanies:

Impactweapons

Chemical complianceweapons

Electricalcomplianceweapons


Impact weapons
Impactweapons

Advantages:

- effective

- cheap

- simple to use


Impact weapons1
Impactweapons

Disadvantages:

- lackof damage

control

- associated

negative image

- noteverywhere

legal


Chemical compliance weapons
Chemical complianceweapons

Advantages:

- relativelycheap

- perceived as non-threatening

- goodsafetyrecord

- simple to use


Chemical compliance weapons1
Chemical complianceweapons

Disadvantages:

- perceived as non-threatening

- inconsistentresults

- limitedin close quartersapplications


Electrical compliance weapons
Electricalcomplianceweapons

Advantages:

- consistentresults

- no lastingharm

Disadvantages:

- highcost

- escalation of force problem

Generallyconsidered the future of NLWs


Electrical compliance devices taser international x26
Electricalcompliancedevices – Taser International X26


Electrical compliance devices principles of operation
ElectricalComplianceDevices – principles of operation

Probe application


Electrical compliance devices principles of operation1
ElectricalComplianceDevices – principles of operation

Drive-stunapplication


Effects of eid
Effects of EID

Severityscale

0 – No observedadverselevel

1 – Effectsnotnormallyrequiring medical treatment for fullrecovery (incl. intendedeffect)

2 – Effectsrequiring medical treatment, but are not life threatening nor poserisk of disabilityafterrecovery

3 – Life-threateningeffects, lethality, significantrisk of disabilityafterrecovery

Severityscalecanbeusedto assess the efectiveness of a NLW system


Major areas of concern with eid
Major areas of concernwithEID

1. Ocularinjury

2. Seizure

3. Ventricularfibrillation

4. Fallinjuries

Potential for unintentional

discharge


Escalation of force problem
Escalation of forceproblem

Perceivednon-lethalityleading to more frequent use of NLW

Increasedprobability of inappropriateapplication

Reducedsense of responsibility


Conclusion
Conclusion

NLW are a useful set of tools to bridge the gap betweenunarmedresponse and lethalforce

NLW positively influence the public image of privatesecuritycompanycompared to firearms or impactweapons

but

Securityofficereducationin use of NLWscrucial

Education on context of use, notonlytechniques

Inappropriate use of NLWsleads to negative public image and potential legal claims


Thank you for your time
Thankyou for yourtime

Aleksandar Pašagić

[email protected]

www.generalsecurity.hr


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