Non lethal weapons use in private security
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NON-LETHAL WEAPONS USE IN PRIVATE SECURITY. Aleksandar Pašagić General Security d.o.o., Zagreb, CROATIA, aleksandar@ generalsecurity.hr. 4 th International Conference Ergonomics 2010. Operating environment. Types of operating environment for a security officer :

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NON-LETHAL WEAPONS USE IN PRIVATE SECURITY

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Non lethal weapons use in private security

NON-LETHAL WEAPONS USE IN PRIVATE SECURITY

Aleksandar Pašagić

General Security d.o.o., Zagreb, CROATIA, [email protected]

4th International Conference

Ergonomics2010


Operating environment

Operatingenvironment

Types of operatingenvironment for a securityofficer:

lowthreathighthreat

Availableoptionsvaryaccording to the demands of the environment


Use of force continuum

Use of forcecontinuum

1) securityofficer’s presence

2) verbalcommands

3) hands on/physicalrestrainttechniques(including the use of a batonwhereapplicable)

4) OC spray/EMI device(whereapplicable)

5) firearm(whereapplicable)

Options are always a compromisebetweeneffectiveness and liability

Number of incidentscorresponds to the inverse use of forcecontinuum

Escalatingforceimpliesincreasedliability


Public image important issue for private security companies

Public image – importantissue for privatesecuritycompanies

Objectives:

  • project a civilized image

  • distance the companyfromexcessivelyaggressive image

  • avoidnegative publicityassociatedwithviolence


Public image important issue for private security companies1

Public image – importantissue for privatesecuritycompanies

Objectivesachievedthroughreductionin use of force


Non lethal weapons

Non-lethalWeapons

Compromisebetweeneffectiveness and minimal use of force: Non-LethalWeapons

Definition:

“… weapons … explicitlydesigned and primarilyemployed … to incapacitatepersonnel or materiel, whileminimizingfatalities, permanentinjury to personnel, and undesireddamage to property and the environment”

- United States Department of DefensePolicyDirective 3000.3, Policy for Non-LethalWeapons, July 9, 1996

Alternative terminology – Less-LethalWeapons


Nlw classes currently available to private security companies

NLW classescurrentlyavailable to privatesecuritycompanies:

Impactweapons

Chemical complianceweapons

Electricalcomplianceweapons


Impact weapons

Impactweapons

Advantages:

- effective

- cheap

- simple to use


Impact weapons1

Impactweapons

Disadvantages:

- lackof damage

control

- associated

negative image

- noteverywhere

legal


Chemical compliance weapons

Chemical complianceweapons

Advantages:

- relativelycheap

- perceived as non-threatening

- goodsafetyrecord

- simple to use


Chemical compliance weapons1

Chemical complianceweapons

Disadvantages:

- perceived as non-threatening

- inconsistentresults

- limitedin close quartersapplications


Electrical compliance weapons

Electricalcomplianceweapons

Advantages:

- consistentresults

- no lastingharm

Disadvantages:

- highcost

- escalation of force problem

Generallyconsidered the future of NLWs


Electrical compliance devices taser international x26

Electricalcompliancedevices – Taser International X26


Electrical compliance devices principles of operation

ElectricalComplianceDevices – principles of operation

Probe application


Electrical compliance devices principles of operation1

ElectricalComplianceDevices – principles of operation

Drive-stunapplication


Effects of eid

Effects of EID

Severityscale

0 – No observedadverselevel

1 – Effectsnotnormallyrequiring medical treatment for fullrecovery (incl. intendedeffect)

2 – Effectsrequiring medical treatment, but are not life threatening nor poserisk of disabilityafterrecovery

3 – Life-threateningeffects, lethality, significantrisk of disabilityafterrecovery

Severityscalecanbeusedto assess the efectiveness of a NLW system


Major areas of concern with eid

Major areas of concernwithEID

1. Ocularinjury

2. Seizure

3. Ventricularfibrillation

4. Fallinjuries

Potential for unintentional

discharge


Escalation of force problem

Escalation of forceproblem

Perceivednon-lethalityleading to more frequent use of NLW

Increasedprobability of inappropriateapplication

Reducedsense of responsibility


Conclusion

Conclusion

NLW are a useful set of tools to bridge the gap betweenunarmedresponse and lethalforce

NLW positively influence the public image of privatesecuritycompanycompared to firearms or impactweapons

but

Securityofficereducationin use of NLWscrucial

Education on context of use, notonlytechniques

Inappropriate use of NLWsleads to negative public image and potential legal claims


Thank you for your time

Thankyou for yourtime

Aleksandar Pašagić

[email protected]

www.generalsecurity.hr


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