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Bellringer #3. What do you already know about the Protestant Reformation? Who was involved? When did it begin? What were some of the new ideas? Write 1 paragraph!. The Protestant Reformation. Chapter 14 Sections 3 & 4. Essential Questions.

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Bellringer #3

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Bellringer 3

Bellringer #3

  • What do you already know about the Protestant Reformation? Who was involved? When did it begin? What were some of the new ideas?

  • Write 1 paragraph!


The protestant reformation

The Protestant Reformation

Chapter 14 Sections 3 & 4


Essential questions

Essential Questions

  • What were the characteristics of Northern Renaissance (Christian) Humanism?

  • What were the chief ideas of Lutheranism, Zwinglianism, Calvinism, and Anabaptism?

  • What role did politics play in the creation and spread of the Protestant Reformation?


Causes of the reformation

Causes of the Reformation

  • Renaissance ideas (humanism, glorification of the individual)

  • The Catholic Church after the Middle Ages was weaker (plague, political control)

  • Printing press (allowed information to spread faster, allowed lay people to read the Bible for themselves)


Northern renaissance christian humanism

Northern Renaissance(Christian) Humanism

  • Taken from Italian Renaissance humanism’s study of the classics

  • Goal was to reform Christendom

  • Desiderius Erasmus

    • Studied original Christian texts

    • Handbook of the Christian Knight – Christianity should show how to live, not be rules to get saved

    • Praise of Folly (1511) – criticized popes


Corruption of the church

Corruption of the Church

  • Renaissance Popes (1450 – 1520)

    • Worried about Italian politics (Papal States)

    • Financial problems (buying art)

  • Pluralism

  • Absenteeism

  • Indulgences

    • Sell of salvation

  • People wanted a more meaningful religious experience


Martin luther

Martin Luther

  • Born in Germany (Nov. 10, 1483)

  • Studied law until deciding to become a monk

  • Studied the Bible

  • New idea – justification by faith

  • Salvation was not through good works, but through faith


Martin luther1

Martin Luther

  • Selling of indulgences angered Luther

    • Pope Leo X trying to raise money to rebuild St. Peter’s Basilica

    • Johann Tetzel

  • Ninety-Five Theses (October 31, 1517)

    • Wittenberg, Germany

    • Attack on the church and the sell of indulgences

    • Printed copies spread throughout Germany

  • Pope Leo X excommunicates in Jan. 1521

  • Diet of Worms-Luther was made an outlaw


Lutheranism

Lutheranism

  • Translated New Testament into German

  • Salvation through faith alone (not through the church)

  • Bible is only source of religious truth

  • Peasant’s War

    • Sided with rulers to keep peace

  • The Peace of Ausberg

    • The division of Christianity was formally accepted


Bellringer 4

Bellringer #4

  • Explain what is meant by justification by grace through faith alone.

  • List three major areas of corruption within the Catholic Church that led to the Reformation.

  • According to Erasmus, what should be the chief concerns of the Christian Church?


Swiss reforms zwinglianism

Swiss Reforms (Zwinglianism)

  • Huldrych Zwingli (1484 – 1531)

  • Like Lutheranism – salvation through faith alone

  • Different

    • Wanted a theocracy (church city-state) in Zurich

  • Zwingli’s forces defeated by Catholics


Swiss reforms calvinism

Swiss Reforms (Calvinism)

  • John Calvin – born in France in 1509

  • Studied theology, law, and humanism

  • Wrote The Institutes of the Christian Religion

    • Predestination – belief that God is all powerful and predestined those who were saved

  • Geneva – began to reform as a theocracy


English religious reform

English Religious Reform

  • Henry VIII – wanted a male heir

    • Catherine of Aragon – daughter Mary

      • Nephew was Charles V of HRE

  • Asked pope for a divorce, pope denied

  • Henry turns to Parliament for help

    • Act of Supremacy (1534) – King became head of English church, not the pope

  • Church keeps most Catholic traditions


English religious reform1

English Religious Reform

  • Henry’s Wives

    • 6 wives = 1 son

  • Edward VI (sickly, dies in teens)

    • Protestant reforms put in changes to the Anglican Church

  • Mary (“Bloody Mary”) – Catholic, burned Protestants at the stake

  • Elizabeth I – Protestant, Anglican Church

    • Puritans – “purify” the English church


Anabaptists

Anabaptists

  • Did not want states to have power over religion

  • Favored by middle and lower class

  • Adult baptism, all members equal

  • Separation of church and state

    • Would not hold political office or fight in the army


Catholic reformation

Catholic Reformation

  • Society of Jesus (Jesuits)

    • Ignatius of Loyola

    • Spread Catholicism

  • Council of Trent

    • Re-affirmed traditional Catholic beliefs

    • Ended selling of indulgences

  • Inquisition

    • Censorship

  • Art

    • Latin only language to read the Bible

    • Baroque style – emotional


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