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EUKARYOTIC GENE. BAHAY GÜLLE* FATIH UNIVERSITY ART & SCIENCE FACULTY BIOLOGY DEPARTMANT 4 TH YEAR STUDENT. Eukaryotes have a complex intracellular organization with internal membranes, membrane bond-organelles, a nucleus and a welled organized cytoskeleton.

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Eukaryotic gene

EUKARYOTIC GENE

BAHAY GÜLLE*

FATIH UNIVERSITY ART & SCIENCE FACULTY BIOLOGY DEPARTMANT 4TH YEAR STUDENT


Eukaryotes have a complex intracellular organization with internal membranes, membrane bond-organelles, a nucleus and a welled organized cytoskeleton.


Eukaryotic cells have several linear chromosomes in their nuclei . In each of the chromosomes there is a very long DNA molecule packaged by histones and other proteins.


The number and DNA content of chromosomes are different among different species.

Human genome : 3x109 nts

Onion : 15x109 nts

Lily : 90x109 nts


Prokaryotic vs eukaryotic genes

Eukaryotes among different species.

large genomes

low gene density

introns (splicing)

RNA processing

heterogeneous promoters

polyadenylation

Prokaryotes

small genomes

high gene density

no introns (or splicing)

no RNA processing

similar promoters

overlapping genes

Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Genes


Genome size
Genome Size among different species.

Eukaryotic genomes may be so large, in part, because most eukaryotic genes in higher eukaryotic organisms are interrupted by introns.


T among different species.he main proportion of DNA in the genomes are non-coding sequences, thus gen density is low in eukaryotic genomes.(The total number of gene in human is estimated to be 30,000-40,000


M among different species.ost eukaryotic genes are DNA sequences that are never translated into polypeptides. These noncoding regions, called introns, alternate with regions called exons that are expressed in the polypeptide sequence.


Protein coding genes have
Protein-coding genes have among different species.

  • exons whose sequence encodes the polypeptide;

  • introns that will be removed from the mRNA before it is translated;

  • a transcription start site

  • a promoter

    -the basal or core promoter located within about 40 bp of the start site

    -an "upstream" promoter, which may extend over as many as 200 bp farther upstream


The transcription start is usually associated with an AT rich DNA sequence about 25 bp away from the initiation - the TATA box

Upstream anywhere from 50 to 100 bases from the TATA box is another sequence associated with transcription initiation - the CAAT box. This sequence may not be necessary in all genes.


Eukaryotic Gene Control rich DNA sequence about 25 bp away from the initiation - the Eukaryotic control sites include promoter consensus sequences similar to those in bacteria.


In rich DNA sequence about 25 bp away from the initiation - the eukaryotes the splicing process of a pre-mRNA can lead to different ripe mRNA molecules and therefore to different proteins. This phenomenon is called alternative splicing.


When the pre-mRNA has been transcribed from the rich DNA sequence about 25 bp away from the initiation - the DNA, it includes several introns and exons. But what is an intron and what is an exon is not decided yet. This decision is made during the splicing process.


F or eukaryotes it was a very important step towards higher efficiency
F rich DNA sequence about 25 bp away from the initiation - the or eukaryotes it was a very important step towards higher efficiency.

  • The information can be stored much more economically.

  • New proteins can evolve much faster than in prokaryotes.

  • Therefore the adaptation to new environments can be much faster - with fewer generations - than in prokaryotes.


Thanks
THANKS..... rich DNA sequence about 25 bp away from the initiation - the


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