CLUB RACE OFFICER COURSE
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CLUB RACE OFFICER COURSE. Club Race Officer (CRO) RYA Club Race Officer Plus (CRO+) RYA Regional Race Officer (RRO) RYA National Race Officer (NRO) ISAF International Race Officer (IRO). Race Management. Club Race Officer One day seminar (level 1 course) Endorsed by suitable experience.

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Club race officer course

CLUB RACE OFFICER COURSE


Race management

Club Race Officer (CRO)

RYA Club Race Officer Plus (CRO+)

RYA Regional Race Officer (RRO)

RYA National Race Officer (NRO)

ISAF International Race Officer (IRO)

Race Management


Club race officer course

Club Race Officer

One day seminar (level 1 course)

Endorsed by suitable experience

Race Management

National Race Officer

RRO

2 day seminar with written test

Appropriate experience

(4 major events) - submit CV

2 References

VHF, PBL2, ISAF Manual

Club Race Officer+

2 day seminar

written test

Regional Race Officer

Club Race Officer+

Appropriate experience

(4 events) - submit CV

1 Reference

VHF

International Race Officer (ISAF appointment)

NRO

4 principal events - submit CV

National Authority Nomination

3 References


Rya website

RYA Website

www.rya.org.uk/raceofficials


Rya website1

RYA Website


Weather

Chart Forecasts

BBC

Met Office

Free Forecasts

XC Weather

Windguru

Subscription Forecasts

Windguru Pro

PredictWind

ProGrib

Weather

Weather Stations

BrambleMet

Cowes Harbour Weather

WAP Weather

Bramblemet/wap


Terminology

A signal (flag) is always DISPLAYED

A signal that is displayed is at some time REMOVED

These are the terms used in the preamble to ‘Race Signals’

‘Shall’ - mandatory action

‘Will’ - intended action

‘Should’ - best endeavours

‘May’ - optional action

Use these terms at all times!

Terminology


Club race officer course

PRO

RO

DRO

ARO

Visual Signals

Gunner

Timekeeper

Race Committee

Recorders

Pin end crew

Finish boat crew

Mark Layers

Beach Master

Safety Officer


Club race officer course

Layout of Flags and Halyards

Minimum flag size 3’x2’ (90cm x 60cm)


Personal equipment

Personal Equipment


Club race officer course

Signals

Flag Displayed

Tells what is going to happen

Flag Removed (Executive Signal)

Order is carried out

Sound Signal

Draws attention to visual signal


Club race officer course

Ground

Wind

The Wind

No tide or current

Ground Wind (or Gradient Wind):

Measured from a fixed point on the ground

(or anchored committee boat)


Club race officer course

Tide Induced Wind

Tide

The Wind

No gradient wind at all!

A still sunny day

But the tide is running


Club race officer course

Ground

Wind

Sailing

Wind

Tide Induced Wind

?

Tide

The Wind

Sailing Wind:

Wind experienced by a free floating boat stopped in the water

Then the gradient kicks in


Club race officer course

COURSES


Courses

Clean winds

Even depth of water

Minimal tidal currents

Enough space

Course areas not overlapped

Courses

Important factors affecting race management


Windward leeward course

Alternatives for this course are:

More rounds

Finish upwind of mark 1

No gate at Mark 2

Gate laid square to the ‘sailing wind’

Windward-Leeward Course


Sausage triangle course

Course angles can be:

600

450 (900 at mark 2)

700 (to give both a close reach & a broad reach)

The finish can also be

located downwind of mark 3

Sausage Triangle Course


Trapezoid course

Two parallel W/L courses

70o for boats without spinnakers

60o for boats with spinnakers

Trapezoid Course


Round the cans course

Uses fixed marks +/- laid marks

Provides a mix of courses in one

Interesting courses

Restricted depending on the position of fixed marks

May not produce a great beat because of fixed position of marks

May not produce a great run because of fixed position of marks

Round the Cans Course


Club race officer course

Top Tips for Round the Cans

Research previous courses for length

Check marks are in situ

Mark roundings - same for all classes

Avoid channel marks

No looping of marks

Common final marks to enable shortening

Allow for tide


The downwind leg

Accuracy is very important

Especially with increasing wind speeds when the boats will sail very deep

The Downwind Leg


Tidal compensation windward leg

Tidal Compensation - Windward Leg

W1

W2

12 kts wind

150

1 kt tide

A rule of thumb guide is:

  • in >10kts wind & 1kt of tide set the windward mark downtide 150 of the ground wind

  • in <8kts wind & 1kt of tide, the offset is 200 or more

  • for tides diagonal to the wind, halve the allowance

  • for 2kts tide double the allowance


Tidal compensation leeward leg

Tidal Compensation - Leeward Leg

Any wind

50

1 knot

tide

L2

L1

  • The adjustment of the running leg to the tide is critical for a good race

  • Rule of thumb:

  • No matter what the wind strength, set the leeward mark 5o downtide of the ground wind for every 1 knot of cross tide


Club race officer course

1

2

12kts wind

50

150

1 knot

tide

3

Tidal Compensation - Solutions

Use an offset mark to create

a ‘tidal correction’ leg)


Club race officer course

The ‘zigzag’ course

The ‘X’ course

Tidal Compensation - Solutions

Wind

Current


Club race officer course

1

GW

Sailing Wind

Tide Induced Wind

Tide

2

Tidal Compensation - Compromise

When you only have 2 marks:

Set up on the Sailing Wind

Equally skewed upwind and downwind


Club race officer course

Drop, drop, drop

Laying the Start Line

Always stream parallel to the committee boat!


Start line length

Number of boats x length of the boat plus 10% to 50%

Start Line Length

ISAF recommendation multiplying factor 1.3 to 1.5

  • Other factors are:

    • size and manoeuvrability of boats

    • sea conditions

    • wind strength

    • current


Line bias for tide

Line Bias for Tide

Wind

Current

Bad

Good

Move pin

down wind

Set line at 90o to Sailing Wind


Line bias for tactics

Line Bias for Tactics

Mark 1

Wind

  • Factors to consider across the course are:

  • wind angles

  • wind velocity

  • waves

  • current

Weak tide in Bay

Strong tide

Starboard bias on the start


The gate

The Gate

Minimum width: 1 zone +1 boat length +1 zone

(When zone is 3 boat lengths, minimum width = 7 boat lengths)

Usual width: 8-10 boat lengths

  • Angle between gate: same principles as a start line

    • Bias for tide

    • Bias for tactics


Club race officer course

STANDARD PROCEDURES


Club race officer course

Pre-Start Procedures

Race team briefing

Record as many boats in the start area as possible

Monitor the wind direction and strength

Set up the boat to ensure that all systems are in place and working - sound signals, flags tied on securely etc.

Communicate with other race courses and commercial traffic to ensure no issues are pending

Radio checks and time checks


Club race officer course

RRS Default

5 mins

4 mins

1 min

0

10 mins

5 mins

1 min

0

10 mins

4 mins

1 min

0

Others

Warning signal

Preparatory signal

One minute

Start

Starting Systems

Attention signal

All timings and associated actions may be altered from RRS default by SIs


Club race officer course

Starting Procedures

Time keeper is the most important person!


Club race officer course

Starting Procedures


Club race officer course

Starting Procedures


Club race officer course

Starting Procedures


Club race officer course

Starting Procedures

WARNING SIGNAL

When?

at the advertised time

Method

class flag displayed

one sound signal


Club race officer course

Starting Procedures

PREP SIGNAL

When?

warning + 1

Method

papa displayed

one sound signal


Club race officer course

Starting Procedures

ONE MINUTE SIGNAL

When?

warning + 4

Method

papa removed

one long sound signal


Club race officer course

Starting Procedures

START SIGNAL

When?

warning + 5

Method

class flag removed

one sound signal


Club race officer course

Starting Procedures

ASSOCIATED ACTIONS

At or before warning signal:

Display course

Before preparatory signal:

Set the start line

Make attachments to the committee boat


Club race officer course

P – default

no penalties apply

I – rule 30.1 applies

round-an-end rule

during 1 min before start

Z – rule 30.2 applies

20% penalty rule

during 1 min before start

Black – rule 30.3 applies

black flag rule

during 1 min before start

Starting Procedures


Club race officer course

P – default

no penalties apply

Starting Procedures

DURING 1 MINUTE BEFORE START


Club race officer course

I – rule 30.1 applies

round-an-end rule

during 1 min before start

Starting Procedures

DURING 1 MINUTE BEFORE START


Club race officer course

Z – rule 30.2 applies

20% penalty rule

during 1 min before start

Starting Procedures

DURING 1 MINUTE BEFORE START

Add 20% of number of boats entered to her score


Club race officer course

Starting Procedures

Black – rule 30.3 applies

black flag rule

during 1 min before start

DURING 1 MINUTE BEFORE START

Disqualified


Club race officer course

Starting Procedures

Line officer commentates on the start

Line recorder records boats movements from commentary

Race Officer communicates with line officer on committee boat and pin end line officer

Line officers use tapes to record observations

It’s the Race Officer’s decision re clear line, individual recall or general recall


Club race officer course

Monitoring the Race

Observe the fleet throughout

Where are they?

Is the course what you intended?

Time legs/laps and calculate finish times

You may want to shorten

Watch for casualties

Watch for commercial traffic

Are they sailing the correct course

Do not protest unless it is a blatant offence and affects the

fairness of the race – leave protesting to the competitors!

Prepare for the next race


Club race officer course

Finishing Procedures

Finish line is defined in the SIs

- usually between the mast flying the orange flag and the last mark of the course


Club race officer course

5

Finishing Line

7 boat lengths long

At 90o to last mark for ‘round the cans’

At 90o to sailing wind for beats or runs

To be crossed from the direction of the last mark

LAST MARK OF COURSE: 5


Club race officer course

Finishing Procedures

Two finishing records

Collect independently

One design only requires the time of 1st and last finisher with an order of finishing

Only record what you see

Do NOT cheat/crib

Cross check during lulls and at the end

Two second disparity is acceptable on timed records

Taped records can be very useful


Club race officer course

OTHER PROCEDURES


Club race officer course

Postponement

These signals can be used for any reason whatsoever!

Even use them as the panic button

Reasons can include:

buoy drifting

major wind shift leading to heavily biased line

mistiming between signals

misfiring of sound signals

broken halyards on the committee boat

etc. etc.


Club race officer course

Postponement

Display AP

All races not started are postponed

Can only be used before the start


Club race officer course

AP

Indefinite postponement

AP over a numeral

Hours postponement

AP over H

Further signals ashore

AP over A

No more racing today

Postponement


Club race officer course

Individual Recall

Identify those boats that are OCS (On the Course Side of the line)


Club race officer course

Individual Recall

Identify those boats that are OCS (On the Course Side of the line)


Club race officer course

Individual Recall

Display X

Record OCS

Watch the boat(s) to see if they return

Leave displayed for 4 minutes if they do not return

When all returned remove X (without a sound signal) and delete OCS from record


Club race officer course

General Recall

Identify those boats that are OCS (On the Course Side of the line)


Club race officer course

General Recall

Display1st Sub

To be used:

when there are several unidentified OCSs

or if there is an error in procedure


Club race officer course

Abandon Racing

DisplayN

The race that has started is Abandoned, return to the starting area.

‘N’ displayed alone cannot be used before the start

Use for:

errors in the course, dangerous or foul conditions, major wind shifts,

late recognition of errors in start sequence, wind vanished, etc

Beware multiple class starts!


Club race officer course

N

Abandoned, return to start area

Abandoned, further signals ashore

N over H

N over A

Abandoned , no more racing today

Abandon Racing


Club race officer course

Shorten Course

DisplayS

Displayed at a rounding mark

finish between the rounding mark and the staff displaying the ‘S’ flag

In multi-class races

display over class flag(s) if not shortening all classes

Use when

wind dies, another race needs to be fitted into the day, etc


Club race officer course

Course Change

DisplayC

Displayed at the mark before the leg to be changed

- on a RIB

Must be displayed as each boat approaches this mark

Displayed with associated signals:

Red square, green triangle, +, -, bearing


Club race officer course

Mark Missing

DisplayM

Displayed in the position a mark was expected to be

- on a RIB

Must be displayed before the leader is in the vicinity

preferably before that leg starts


Club race officer course

Restarting

After Postponement

RemoveAP

Remove 1 minute before warning signal


Club race officer course

Restarting

After General Recall

RemoveIst Sub

Remove 1 minute before warning signal


Club race officer course

Restarting

After Abandonment

RemoveN

Remove 1 minute before warning signal


Club race officer course

After Racing

Protests

Be helpful to competitors even if they are

protesting the race committee

Ensure that protest time limits are observed

Tell the truth in the protest room

Do not argue, challenge or question the

competitors in the protest room

Leave it to the jury!


Club race officer course

After Racing

Debrief

Personal assessment

Group assessment

Get feed back from competitors


Club race officer course

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN

KEEL BOATS AND DINGHIES


Club race officer course

Safety

Dinghy

Keel Boat

Many youngsters (consents)

Safety boats

Safety briefing

Tally system

Buoyancy aids often compulsory

Compliance with instruction compulsory

Few youngsters

Skipper’s responsibility

Y flag


Club race officer course

Racing Conditions

Dinghy

Keel Boat

Limited by risk of injury

Limited by risk of damage

Ability of fleet to be considered

Consider pressure on youngsters

Limited by committee boat

Skipper’s responsibility


Club race officer course

Courses

Dinghy

Keel Boat

One design

Short course geography

Windward/Leeward

Trapezoid

One design & handicaps

Extensive course

Windward/Leeward

Fixed racing marks


Club race officer course

WHEN IT GOES WRONG


When it goes wrong

Big wind shifts

Committee boat moves at start

Competitor tangles around committee boat

Container boat approaching the beat at start

Course incorrectly displayed

Cruiser or fishing boat on the line at the start

When it Goes Wrong


When it goes wrong1

Finish line too shallow

Flags don’t go up

Flags fall down

Mark is moved

Mark not present

Mark walks

When it Goes Wrong


When it goes wrong2

Visual Signals Mistimed or Absent

Results confused / omissions / lost

Sea Sickness

Sound signals are mistimed or absent

Timing error noticed after the start

When it Goes Wrong


When it goes wrong3

Recognise problems

Admit your mistakes

Have contingency plans

Deal with issues

When it Goes Wrong


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