Assessment 102
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Assessment 102. Developing Program Goals and Intended Learning Outcomes. Overview Topics for this Workshop. Review of the Assessment Process Steps in the Process and Common Obstacles Assessment Goals and Objectives Rationale and Objectives Key Terms and Distinctions

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Assessment 102

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Assessment 102

Assessment 102

Developing Program Goals and Intended Learning Outcomes


Overview topics for this workshop

OverviewTopics for this Workshop

  • Review of the Assessment Process

    • Steps in the Process and Common Obstacles

  • Assessment Goals and Objectives

    • Rationale and Objectives

    • Key Terms and Distinctions

    • Sources & Origins: How and Where to Begin

    • Types of Goals: Cognitive, Behavioral, Affective

    • Writing Goals and Objectives

    • Evaluating Your Goals and Objectives

    • Sample Departmental Goals and Objectives


Review the assessment process

Review: The Assessment Process

  • State the broad educational purposes and goals of your program

  • State your more specific objectives and intended outcomes

  • Select appropriate assessment methods and measures; establish target criteria

  • Gather data using assessment methods & measures chosen

  • Analyze and interpret findings; report to stakeholders

  • Identify, implement changes to your educational program

  • Revise assessment objectives, methods, measures, criteria as appropriate


Obstacles and stumbling blocks

Obstacles and Stumbling Blocks

  • 3 Cardinal rules for those undertaking assessment and evaluation

  • The tendency to focus on process rather than outcomes

  • Assessment as an “add-on”

  • Skepticism RE “new ideas” in higher ed.

  • Disagreements among colleagues


Goals and objectives rationale

Goals and Objectives: Rationale

“If you don’t know where you’re going, you’ll probably end up somewhere else”

Campbell, 1974


Goals and objectives rationale1

Goals and Objectives: Rationale

  • Goal-Setting and Goal-Directedness as Markers of Successful Individuals and Organizations

  • The Importance of Modeling Goal-Setting and Goal-Directedness for our Students

  • The Central Role of Faculty in Articulating Program Goals and Objectives


Goals and objectives rationale2

Goals and Objectives: Rationale

  • Why Goals and Objectives MUST Come First in the Assessment Process

  • Why they Often Don’t

  • Consequences


Goals and objectives defined

Goals and Objectives: Defined

  • Goals

    • Statements regarding general aims or purposes of education

    • Broad, long-range intended outcomes

    • Used primarily in policy-making, planning

  • Objectives

    • Brief, more specific statements describing the intended learning outcomes of a program

    • Focus is on features students expected to exhibit


Objectives and outcomes

Objectives and Outcomes

  • Objectives (continued)

    • The intended consequences of instruction, curricula, programs, educational activities

    • What students are expected to know, do, value

  • Outcomes

    • The actual or achieved results or consequences of instruction, curricula, programs, or activities


Writing goals and objectives how to develop them and where to begin

Writing Goals and Objectives:How to Develop Them and Where to Begin

  • Open Discussions--your ideal students?

    • What can they do, what do they know, what do they value (at various points in your program)?

    • What achievements do you expect of graduates (career, lifestyle, citizenship, aesthetic appreciation)?

    • What skills, knowledge, & values are necessary for entry level work or graduate study?


Writing goals and objectives how to develop them and where to begin1

Writing Goals and Objectives:How to Develop Them and Where to Begin

  • Collect & Review Documents Describing Your Program

    • Brochures, catalogue descriptions, accreditation reports, general education reports, missions

  • Review & React to External Input

    • National organization, professional association, accrediting bodies, strong programs in field (especially any relevant assessment plans)


Writing goals and objectives how to develop them and where to begin2

Writing Goals and Objectives:How to Develop Them and Where to Begin

  • Collect and Review Instructional Materials

    • Syllabi, course outlines, assignments, tests, textbooks (especially tables of contents, introductions, summaries)

  • Use Goal Inventories or Other Tools


Types of goals objectives

Types of Goals & Objectives

  • Knowledge (Cognitive Outcomes)

  • Skills (Behavioral Outcomes)

  • Attitudes (Affective Outcomes)


Cognitive objectives what we expect students to know

Cognitive Objectives:What we expect students to know

  • Knowledge

    • (e.g.,define,describe, identify, list, match,recall)

  • Comprehension (e.g., explain,paraphrase,summarize)

  • Application (e.g., apply, relate, use in new situations)

  • Analysis (e.g., compare/contrast, differentiate, analyze)

  • Synthesis (e.g., compose, create, design, produce)

  • Evaluation

    • (e.g., assess, critique, defend, grade, judge, prioritize


Behavioral objectives what we expect students to be able to do

Behavioral ObjectivesWhat we expect students to be able to do

  • General Description

    • Learned observable behaviors

  • Contexts and Areas of Application

    • Performing arts, professional programs, technical/trade programs, athletics, etc.

  • Sample skills

    • Oral & written communication; presentation; interpersonal problem-solving; managerial, laboratory, music/art performance skills


Affective objectives what we expect students to value or believe

Affective ObjectivesWhat we expect students to value or believe

  • Categories (Krathwohl et al. 1964)

    • attitudes, beliefs, values, goals, expectations, interests, appreciation of…(person, object, goal, place)

  • Potential Problems

    • Can’t be measured directly, often inconsistent w/ behavior, disagreement over conceptual, operational definitions

  • Benefits

    • Status, development of values and beliefs


  • Writing goals objectives nctla model

    Writing Goals & ObjectivesNCTLA Model

    • Assessable goals state…

      • What is to be learned (knowledge,skills,values)

      • What level of learning is expected

        • c.f., Bloom’s or Krathwohl et al. Taxonomies

      • In what context the learning is revealed

    • Example

      • Students will be able to applylogical and ethical principlesto personal &social situations


    Writing goals objectives source assessment workbook ball state u

    Writing Goals & Objectives(Source: Assessment Workbook, BallState U)

    • Essential Components

      • Behavior--actions indicating objective achieved

      • Object--identify focus of learning (knowledge, skill,etc)

    • Optional Components

      • Target Groups--subgroups (when objectives differ)

      • Conditions--when, where behavior must be shown

      • Performance Criteria--form of behavior, min. level

      • Performance Stability--frequency, duration, stability

    • Example

      • After analyzing & interpreting info from public opinion polls, the graduating journalism major will be able to communicate results to at least 3 different audiences in written, oral, & graphic forms


    Guidelines for evaluating objectives

    Guidelines for Evaluating Objectives

    • Number of objectives limited (3-5)?

    • Refers to student behaviors?

    • Clear, simple language; action verbs?

    • Is outcome reasonable, achievable?

    • Objective assessable by multiple methods?

    • Objectives validated by colleagues?

    • Assessing important outcomes? Troublesome ones? Results of new initiatives?


    Sample objectives and intended learning outcomes

    Sample Objectives and Intended Learning Outcomes

    • Books (e.g., by Nichols, J.O. et al, Agathon Press)

      • A practitioner’s handbook for institutional effectiveness and student outcomes implementation

      • Assessment case studies: Common issues in implementation w various campus approaches to resolution

      • The departmental guide and record book for student outcomes assessment and institutional effectiveness

  • Internet

    • http://www2.acs.ncsu.edu/UPA/survey/resource.htm

  • Local

    • g:\zurarm\assessment\sample.plans\


  • What s next the assessment process revisited

    What’s Next: TheAssessment Process Revisited

    • State the broad educational purposes and goals of your program

    • State your more specific objectives and intended outcomes

    • Select appropriate assessment methods and measures; establish target criteria

    • Gather data using assessment methods & measures chosen

    • Analyze and interpret findings; report to stakeholders

    • Identify, implement changes to your educational program

    • Revise assessment objectives, methods, measures, criteria as appropriate


    What s next a more specific look at the next step

    What’s Next:A More Specific Look at the Next Step

    • Select Assessment Methods & Measures

      • Criteria by which to select measures

      • Strengths & weaknesses of various measures

      • Matching objectives to measures

      • Scheduling of, Responsibility for Assessment

    • Establishing Target Criteria

      • Level of performance desired? When is objective met?

      • Do target criteria vary over time (Entry? Graduation?)

      • What conditions necessary before objective can be met?


    Concluding remarks

    Concluding Remarks

    • Goals & Objectives Needn’t Reflect Present

      • can reflect hopes, future; serve as guide

    • Not all Actual Outcomes are the Intended or Expected Ones

      • side effects & surprises can be informative

    • Any Progress is Better that Inertia or Regression

      • don’t wait for “perfect” goals or objectives


    Need help

    Need Help?

    • Books and Periodicals

      • see references in this & previous workshop

    • Internet Resources

      • see url’s in this & previous workshop

    • Local Resources

      • Upcoming Workshops

      • Assessment Newsletter, Brochures

      • Assessment Committee Members


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