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Ch. 16. Plate Tectonics. Layers of the Earth. Thickness: 5 – 40 km Composition: Oxygen, Silicon, Aluminum, Calcium, Iron, Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium Temperature: Up to 1,600 degrees F. Crust. Thickness: 2,900 km

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Ch 16

Ch. 16

Plate Tectonics



Crust

Thickness: 5 – 40 km

Composition: Oxygen, Silicon, Aluminum,

Calcium, Iron, Sodium,

Potassium, Magnesium

Temperature: Up to 1,600 degrees F

Crust


Mantle

  • Thickness: 2,900 km

  • Composition: Silicon, Oxygen, Iron,

    Magnesium

  • Temperature: 1,600 F to 8,000 F

Mantle


  • The soft layer of the mantle, beneath the lithosphere, is the asthenosphere. Asthenes means “weak”.


Outer core

Thickness: 2,250 km

Composition: Iron, Nickel

Temperature: 2,200 F to 11,000 F

Outer Core


Inner core

Thickness: 1,200 km

Composition: Iron, Nickel

Temperature: 9,032 F to 13,000 F

Inner Core


Layers of the earth1
Layers of the Earth

  • Skin of the peach is the crust

  • Meat of the peach is the mantle

  • Pit of the peach is the core


Types of rocks
TYPES OF ROCKS

  • Igneous

  • Sedimentary

  • Metamorphic


Igneous rocks
IGNEOUS ROCKS

  • Formed from molten material including volcanic lava, ash, or bombs as well as magma below Earth’s surface.


Types of igneous rocks
TYPES OF IGNEOUS ROCKS

BASALT

GRANITE


Sedimentary rocks
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

  • Made of layers that have been pressed or cemented together

  • Pebbles, sand, silt, or clay are sediments

  • Shells and bones can also be sediments


Types of sedimentary rocks
TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

LIMESTONE

SHALE

COAL


Metamorphic rocks
METAMORPHIC ROCKS

  • Rocks that are changed by intense heat and pressure while inside Earth’s surface

  • Igneous, sedimentary, and even metamorphic rocks can be changed into different metamorphic rocks.



Rock cycle
ROCK CYCLE

  • The rock cycle is a never-ending process of rocks forming, weathering, and changing into other rocks



Faults occur because forces inside Earth cause Earth’s plates to move, placing stress on or near the plate edge.


When rocks break they move along faults
When rocks break, they move along faults.

  • Applied forces cause rocks to undergo elastic deformation.

  • When elastic limits are passed, rocks break.




Earthquake vibrations produced by breaking rock

Rocks break, move along the fault, return to original shapes.

Rock on one side of a fault can move over, under, or past each other along fault lines.

Earthquake - vibrations produced by breaking rock.


Seismic waves

Are waves generated by an earthquake; can move the ground forward, backward, up & down, side to side.

Focus - an earthquake’s point of energy release.

Seismic waves


A seismic wave’s speed and direction change as the wave moves through different layers with changes in densities.


Seismograph measures seismic waves
Seismograph moves through different layers with changes in - measures seismic waves.

  • Consists of a rotating drum of paper + a pendulum with an attached pen.

  • Makes a paper record of a seismic event called a seismogram.


Shadow zones moves through different layers with changes in do not receive seismic waves because the waves are bent or stopped by materials of different density.

Generally increases with depth as pressure increases.

Density


Changes in seismic wave speed allowed detection of boundaries between earth s layers
Changes in seismic wave moves through different layers with changes in speed allowed detection of boundaries between Earth’s layers.


Although earthquakes are natural events they kill many people and cause a lot of damage
Although earthquakes are natural events, they kill many people and cause a lot of damage.

  • Seismologists are scientists who study earthquakes.



Divergent plate boundary
Divergent Plate Boundary humans - 3.0 to 4.9 on the scale.

  • A place where two plates move apart, or diverge

  • Most occur along the mid-ocean ridge where sea-floor spreading occurs.


Mid ocean ridge
Mid-ocean ridge humans - 3.0 to 4.9 on the scale.

  • Mountains that lie mostly hidden under the ocean

  • Iceland is a part of the mid-ocean ridge that rises above the surface.


Mid ocean ridge1
Mid-Ocean Ridge humans - 3.0 to 4.9 on the scale.


Sea floor spreading
Sea floor spreading humans - 3.0 to 4.9 on the scale.

  • The sea floor spreads apart along both sides of a mid-ocean ridge as new crust is added.

  • As a result, the ocean floors move like conveyor belts, carrying the continents along with them.


Sea floor spreading1
Sea floor spreading humans - 3.0 to 4.9 on the scale.


Rift valley
Rift valley humans - 3.0 to 4.9 on the scale.

  • Forms along the divergent boundary, only it forms on land


Rift valley1
Rift Valley humans - 3.0 to 4.9 on the scale.


Convergent plate boundary
Convergent plate boundary humans - 3.0 to 4.9 on the scale.

  • The place where two plates come together, or converge

  • When two plates collide, the density of the plates determines which one comes out on top.


Transform boundary
Transform Boundary humans - 3.0 to 4.9 on the scale.

  • A place where two plates slip past each other, moving in opposite directions

  • Earthquakes often occur along these boundaries.


Transform boundary1
Transform Boundary humans - 3.0 to 4.9 on the scale.


Subduction
Subduction humans - 3.0 to 4.9 on the scale.

  • A process in which the ocean floor sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle.


Subduction1
Subduction humans - 3.0 to 4.9 on the scale.


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