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Working with Linux - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Working with Linux. Lab 1. Login and logout. Account username & password Note : Linux is case-sensitive Administrator: username = root Logout: exit, Ctrl+D. (D). (C). WINDOWS. Program Files. Data. Music. …. OS. Fonts. System32. …. …. Linux File System. (/). home. boot.

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login and logout
Login and logout
  • Account
    • username & password
    • Note:
      • Linux is case-sensitive
      • Administrator: username = root
  • Logout: exit, Ctrl+D
linux file system

(D)

(C)

WINDOWS

Program Files

Data

Music

….

OS

Fonts

System32

….

….

Linux File System

(/)

home

boot

etc

root

khoa

student1

….

….

Linux File System

Windows File System

directory file commands
Directory/file commands
  • List contents of directory :

ls [-a] [-l] [directory_name]

  • Print working directory: pwd
  • Change working directory :

cd directory_name

E.g. cd /home

  • Create new directory :

mkdir directory_name

  • Remove a directory:

rm -r directory_name

  • Some special symbols :

~ : home directory

.. : parent directory

directory file commands1
Directory/file commands
  • Display file content :

cat filename or more filename

head filename or tail filename

  • Copy file(s) or directory:

cp [-r] source_file destination_file

  • Remove file or directory

rm –r file_name

  • Move (rename) file(s)/directory

mv old_path new_path

file system and permissions
File system and permissions
  • Each user may owns one or more directories/files
  • Each user has different access rights in different directories/files
    • users can share their data together
    • users also can protect their private data
file system and permissions1
File system and permissions
  • Access right on directory/file
    • read (r)
    • write (w)
    • execute (x)
  • Each directory/file has 9 access-right bits, divide into 3 groups as follow :
    • owner
    • group (e.g. people the same project team)
    • others (people in public domain)
changing access rights 1
Changing access rights (1)
  • Symbolic

chmod whoopmode [-R] file(s)

  • Who: u : owner

g : group

o : others

a : all

  • Mode: r : read

w : write

x : execute

  • Op + : grant more rights

- : revoke rights

= : reset rights

changing access rights 2
Changing access rights (2)
  • Example

$ touch temp

$ ls –l temp

-rw-r--r-- 1 user1 staff 0 Jun 11 11:44 temp

$ chmod o-r temp

$ ls -l temp

-rw-r----- 1 user1 staff 0 Jun 11 11:44 temp

$ chmod u+x, o+r temp

$ ls -l temp

-rwxr--r-- 1 user1 staff 0 Jun 11 11:44 temp

changing access rights 3
Changing access rights (3)
  • Numeric: chmod xyz [-R] file(s)

read = 4 write = 2 execute = 1

changing access rights 4
Changing access rights (4)
  • Example: some common access rights of directory/file(s)
changing access rights 5
Changing access rights (5)
  • Example

$ touch abc

$ ls –l abc

-rw-r--r-- 1 user1 staff 0 Jun 11 11:44 abc

$ chmod 555 abc

$ ls -l abc

-r-xr-xr-x 1 user1 staff 0 Jun 11 11:44 abc

$ chmod 775 abc

$ ls -l abc

-rwxrwxr-x 1 user1 staff 0 Jun 11 11:44 abc

advanced utilities 1
Advanced utilities (1)
  • Who is who?

who [option]

  • Print current host name

hostname

  • Where do they come from?

which [filename]

  • How much disk usage?

df [option]

  • Clear screen

clear OR Ctrl + L

advanced utilities 2
Advanced utilities (2)
  • Find a specified file :

find path –name filename

  • Find lines in file matching a pattern

grep patternfile_name

  • Mount and unmount file system

mount -t filesystemdevice_filemount_point

umount mount_point

vi editor
vi editor
  • Interactive simple editor
  • Can not use mouse
  • Text editing on a buffer
  • Appears on most Unix or Unix-like system
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