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Working with Linux. Lab 1. Login and logout. Account username & password Note : Linux is case-sensitive Administrator: username = root Logout: exit, Ctrl+D. (D). (C). WINDOWS. Program Files. Data. Music. …. OS. Fonts. System32. …. …. Linux File System. (/). home. boot.

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Login and logout
Login and logout

  • Account

    • username & password

    • Note:

      • Linux is case-sensitive

      • Administrator: username = root

  • Logout: exit, Ctrl+D


Linux file system

(D)

(C)

WINDOWS

Program Files

Data

Music

….

OS

Fonts

System32

….

….

Linux File System

(/)

home

boot

etc

root

khoa

student1

….

….

Linux File System

Windows File System


Directory file commands
Directory/file commands

  • List contents of directory :

    ls [-a] [-l] [directory_name]

  • Print working directory: pwd

  • Change working directory :

    cd directory_name

    E.g. cd /home

  • Create new directory :

    mkdir directory_name

  • Remove a directory:

    rm -r directory_name

  • Some special symbols :

    ~ : home directory

    .. : parent directory


Directory file commands1
Directory/file commands

  • Display file content :

    cat filename or more filename

    head filename or tail filename

  • Copy file(s) or directory:

    cp [-r] source_file destination_file

  • Remove file or directory

    rm –r file_name

  • Move (rename) file(s)/directory

    mv old_path new_path


File system and permissions
File system and permissions

  • Each user may owns one or more directories/files

  • Each user has different access rights in different directories/files

    • users can share their data together

    • users also can protect their private data


File system and permissions1
File system and permissions

  • Access right on directory/file

    • read (r)

    • write (w)

    • execute (x)

  • Each directory/file has 9 access-right bits, divide into 3 groups as follow :

    • owner

    • group (e.g. people the same project team)

    • others (people in public domain)



Changing access rights 1
Changing access rights (1)

  • Symbolic

    chmod whoopmode [-R] file(s)

  • Who: u : owner

    g : group

    o : others

    a : all

  • Mode: r : read

    w : write

    x : execute

  • Op + : grant more rights

    - : revoke rights

    = : reset rights


Changing access rights 2
Changing access rights (2)

  • Example

    $ touch temp

    $ ls –l temp

    -rw-r--r-- 1 user1 staff 0 Jun 11 11:44 temp

    $ chmod o-r temp

    $ ls -l temp

    -rw-r----- 1 user1 staff 0 Jun 11 11:44 temp

    $ chmod u+x, o+r temp

    $ ls -l temp

    -rwxr--r-- 1 user1 staff 0 Jun 11 11:44 temp


Changing access rights 3
Changing access rights (3)

  • Numeric: chmod xyz [-R] file(s)

    read = 4 write = 2 execute = 1


Changing access rights 4
Changing access rights (4)

  • Example: some common access rights of directory/file(s)


Changing access rights 5
Changing access rights (5)

  • Example

    $ touch abc

    $ ls –l abc

    -rw-r--r-- 1 user1 staff 0 Jun 11 11:44 abc

    $ chmod 555 abc

    $ ls -l abc

    -r-xr-xr-x 1 user1 staff 0 Jun 11 11:44 abc

    $ chmod 775 abc

    $ ls -l abc

    -rwxrwxr-x 1 user1 staff 0 Jun 11 11:44 abc


Advanced utilities 1
Advanced utilities (1)

  • Who is who?

    who [option]

  • Print current host name

    hostname

  • Where do they come from?

    which [filename]

  • How much disk usage?

    df [option]

  • Clear screen

    clear OR Ctrl + L


Advanced utilities 2
Advanced utilities (2)

  • Find a specified file :

    find path –name filename

  • Find lines in file matching a pattern

    grep patternfile_name

  • Mount and unmount file system

    mount -t filesystemdevice_filemount_point

    umount mount_point


Vi editor
vi editor

  • Interactive simple editor

  • Can not use mouse

  • Text editing on a buffer

  • Appears on most Unix or Unix-like system








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