Psychological disorders
1 / 21

Psychological Disorders - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Updated On :

Psychological Disorders. Chapter 13 George S. Robinson, Jr., Ph.D. Department of Psychology North Carolina A&T State University. Abnormal Behavior. Criteria of Abnormality statistical rarity interference with normal functioning personal distress deviance from social norms

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Psychological Disorders' - reid

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Psychological disorders l.jpg

Psychological Disorders

Chapter 13

George S. Robinson, Jr., Ph.D.

Department of Psychology

North Carolina A&T State University

Abnormal behavior l.jpg
Abnormal Behavior

  • Criteria of Abnormality

    • statistical rarity

    • interference with normal functioning

    • personal distress

    • deviance from social norms

  • Abnormal (definition)

    • term used to describe behavior that is rare or dysfunctional, causes personal distress, or deviates from social norms

Insanity l.jpg

  • Insanity

    • legal ruling that a person accused of a crime is not held responsible for that act; defined in most states as the inability to tell the difference between right and wrong at the time the crime is committed

Models of abnormal behavior l.jpg
Models of Abnormal Behavior

  • Medical model

  • psychological models

    • psychodynamic model

    • behavioral model

    • cognitive model

    • sociocultural model

  • biopsychosocial model

Classifying and counting psychological disorders l.jpg
Classifying and Counting Psychological Disorders

  • DSM-IV - diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders

  • labeling

  • prevalence - percentage in the population with the disorder

  • incidence - rate of new cases reported in a population

Anxiety disorders l.jpg
Anxiety Disorders

  • Anxiety- general feeling of apprehension characterized by behavioral, cognitive, or physiological symptoms

    • phobias

    • panic disorder

    • generalized anxiety disorder

    • obsessive-compulsive disorder

Somatoform disorders l.jpg
Somatoform Disorders

  • Somatoform disorders - disorders involving physical complaints that do not have a known medical cause but are related to psychological factors

    • hypochondriasis

    • somatization disorder

    • conversion disorder

Dissociative disorder l.jpg
Dissociative Disorder

  • Dissociative disorder - disorders affecting a function of the mind, such as memory for events, knowledge of one’s identity, or consciousness

    • dissociative amnesia

    • dissociative fugue

    • dissociative identity disorder

      • (multiple personality disorder)

Mood disorders l.jpg
Mood Disorders

  • Depression

    • Symptoms: sadness, reduced energy, lack of interest in activities, sleep disturbances, eating disturbances, excessive crying, possible thoughts of suicide

  • Dysthymic disorder (dysthymia)

  • Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)

  • Bipolar disorder (manic-depressive)

  • Cyclothymic disorder (cyclothymia)

Causes of mood disorders l.jpg
Causes of Mood Disorders

  • Biological explanations

    • Genetic

    • Neurotransmitters

  • Psychodynamic explanation

  • Cognitive and behavioral explanations

    • Learned helplessness – belief that one cannot control outcomes through one’s actions

      • Hopelessness – belief system and the way they explain the situation

      • Arbitrary inference – conclusion drawn in the absence of supporting information

Schizophrenia l.jpg

  • Schizophrenia

    • Psychotic disorder characterized by positive symptoms (excesses) such as delusions, hallucinations, and fluent but disorganized speech or negative symptoms (deficits) such as flat or blunted affect

Symptoms of schizophrenia l.jpg
Symptoms of Schizophrenia

  • Positive symptoms

    • Delusions, hallucinations (auditory, visual, somatosensory), disturbed emotions, loose associations, word salad, clang associations (i.e., eating wires and lighting fires)

  • Negative symptoms

    • Poverty of speech, poverty of content, avolition (difficulty making decisions), flattened affect, social withdrawal, apathy,

Subtypes of schizophrenia l.jpg
Subtypes of Schizophrenia

  • Catatonic

    • Unusual motor symptoms

  • Disorganized

    • Incoherent speech, inappropriate affect

  • Paranoid

    • Delusions of persecution or grandeur, auditory hallucinations

  • Residual

    • No delusions, hallucinations, or incoherent language, but continuation of social withdrawal and odd beliefs

  • Undifferentiated

    • Diagnosis that do not fit other subtypes

Causes of schizophrenia l.jpg
Causes of Schizophrenia

  • Genetic (strong link)

  • Neurochemical (overactive dopamine)

  • Enlarged ventricles

  • Smaller thalamus

  • Stress and environmental factors

Personality disorders l.jpg
Personality Disorders

  • Personality disorders

    • Class of disorders marked by extreme, inflexible personality traits that cause subjective distress or impaired social and occupational functioning

Personality disorders cont l.jpg
Personality Disorders – cont.

  • 1. Anxious / fearful

    • Avoidant personality disorder

      • A pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation

    • Dependent personality disorder

      • A pattern of submissive and clinging behavior related to an excessive need to be taken care of

    • Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

      • A pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and control

Personality disorders cont17 l.jpg
Personality Disorders – cont.

  • 2. Odd / eccentric

    • Schizotypal personality disorder

      • A pattern of acute discomfort in close relationships, cognitive or perceptual distortions, and eccentricities of behavior

    • Paranoid personality disorder

      • A pattern of distrust and suspiciousness such that others’ motives are interpreted as malevolent

Personality disorders cont18 l.jpg
Personality Disorders – cont.

  • 3. dramatic / impulsive

    • Histrionic personality disorder

      • A pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking

    • Narcissistic personality disorder

      • A pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy

    • Borderline personality disorder

      • A pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity

    • Antisocial personality disorder

      • A pattern of disregard for, and violation of the rights of others

Etiology of personality disorders l.jpg
Etiology of Personality Disorders

  • Lack of inhibitions (biological predisposition)

  • Dysfunctional family

  • Learned behavior

Sexual disorders l.jpg
Sexual Disorders

  • Gender identity disorder (transsexualism)

    • Sexual disorder characterized by a person’s belief that he or she was born with the wrong biological sex organs

  • Paraphilia

    • Sexual arousal by objects or situations not considered sexual by most people

  • Fetishism

    • Paraphilia involving sexual arousal by unusual objects or body parts

Sexual disorders paraphilias l.jpg
Sexual Disorders – Paraphilias

  • Exhibitionism – compulsion to expose one’s genitals in public

  • Fetishism – nonhuman object preferred for sexual arousal

  • Frotteurism – sexual arousal by rubbing nonconsenting persons

  • Klismaphilia – sexual arousal linked to giving or receiving enemas

  • Mysophilia – arousal from presence or use of filth

  • Necrophilia – pleasure from viewing or having contact with a corpse

  • Pedophilia – sexual relations with children as preferred method

  • Sexual sadism and masochism – sexual gratification linked to pain

  • Transvestic fetishism – arousal by wearing opposite-sex clothing

  • Voyeurism – desire to watch others having sexual relations

  • Zoophilia – sexual activity with animals