Health consequences of energy choices the energy exercise
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Health Consequences of Energy Choices : The Energy Exercise. Crispin Pierce, Ph.D. Outline. How do we use energy? How do we classify health consequences from energy use? What sources of energy do we have? Coal Natural gas Diesel and biodiesel Solar Wind Biomass Nuclear Hydroelectric

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Health consequences of energy choices the energy exercise

Health Consequences of Energy Choices: The Energy Exercise

Crispin Pierce, Ph.D.


Outline
Outline

How do we use energy?

How do we classify health consequences from energy use?

What sources of energy do we have?

Coal

Natural gas

Diesel and biodiesel

Solar

Wind

Biomass

Nuclear

Hydroelectric

The Energy Exercise

Questions?


Uses of energy
Uses of Energy

Non-renewable: coal, gas, oil, and nuclear.

Renewable: solar, wind, biomass, biodiesel.

Transportation

Heating

Manufacturing


Health consequences
Health Consequences

TIME

Immediate/short-term (e.g., refinery explosion)

Long-term (e.g., cancer)

REVERSABILITY

Temporary injury (e.g., skin burn from gasoline spill)

Permanent disability (e.g., lung disease from coal plant emissions)

CONTROLABILITY

“Voluntary” (e.g., driving a car)

“Involuntary” (e.g., nuclear plant risk)


Coal

Advantages

Large US reserves

Known technology

Potential for lowering mercury emissions.

Health Risks

Acid rain

Mercury in fish

Particulate matter

Global warming

Degraded water quality


Natural gas and oil
Natural Gas and Oil

Advantages:

Known technology

Infrastructure exists

Health Risks

Air pollution (NOx, particulates, CO)

Drilling, piping, and refining effects

Global warming

Natural protection losses

Wars over oil supplies

Photo: EcotechDaily


Diesel and biodiesel
Diesel and Biodiesel

Advantages

Can be less expensive

Biodiesel is renewable

Health Effects

Particulate emissions cause lung disease and cancer

Refining and production job risks

Photo: Thoroughbred Diesel


Nuclear
Nuclear

Advantages

Very low emissions

Relatively safe

Health Effects

Major water needs for cooling

Extremely toxic spent fuel materials cause cancer

Extremely long half-lives of these wastes

Terrorism and war (?)


Wind

Advantages

Renewable

Very low impact

Local generation

Health Risks

Bird losses:

Vehicles: 60 - 80 million

Buildings and Windows: 98 - 980 million

Powerlines: tens of thousands - 174 million

Communication Towers: 4 - 50 million

Wind Generation Facilities: 10,000 - 40,000

Installation and operation accidents

Marine mammal disruption from offshore installation and operation


Solar heating
Solar Heating

Advantages

Renewable

Local generation

Low impact

Health Risks

Allergenic molds and fungi

Environmental costs of materials to produce solar systems


Solar photovoltaic
Solar Photovoltaic

Advantages

Renewable

Local generation

Creates electricity

Low impact

Health Effects

Battery production and operation

Semiconductor materials production (production of silicon)

Land space for panels less useful as natural resource


Biomass
Biomass

Advantages

Renewable

Local generation

Simple

Health Risks

Particulates and lung disease

Local deforestation

Agricultural effects: water consumption, runoff, herbicides, pesticides


Hydroelectric

Advantages

Renewable

Regulated supply

Disadvantages

Potential exposure to pathogens

Disruption of natural water filtration

Hydroelectric


Global warming effects
Global Warming Effects

  • Heat deaths (70,000 people died in the summer of 2003).

  • Spread of mosquito, tick and other insect-borne diseases.

  • Increased air pollution death and diseases.

  • Disruption of food production.


Co2 causes global warming

Generate CO2

Coal

Oil

Gas

Waste combustion

Diesel

CO2 Neutral

Biomass

Ethanol

Solar

Wind

Tidal

Geothermal

Nuclear

Biodiesel

CO2 Causes Global Warming


Renewable energy is not risk free
Renewable Energy is Not Risk-Free

  • Health risks from renewable energy sources come from the large amounts of material and labor needed, as well as energy backup and storage requirements.

  • The diagram on the next page represents short- and long-term health risks from different sources of energy. Which sources are most dangerous? Which are safest?




Energy conservation avoids all these risks
Energy conservation avoids all these risks.

http://www.homesalameda.org/graphics/urban.jpg


The energy exercise
The Energy Exercise

  • Goal: To understand how energy use choices affect our health, finances, and comfort.Setup: Each participant receives ten credits of health, money, and comfort credits.Play: Ten year-round energy “choices” are made.

  • Result: Participants learn about how their choices affect their quality of life.


Get your pencil ready! Create three columns with the labels below, starting with ten in each column. As you answer each question on the following pages, add or subtract to each column.


Housing
Housing below, starting with ten in each column. As you answer each question on the following pages, add or subtract to each column.

Cost


Your yard
Your Yard below, starting with ten in each column. As you answer each question on the following pages, add or subtract to each column.


Summer heat
Summer Heat below, starting with ten in each column. As you answer each question on the following pages, add or subtract to each column.


Trips to the cabin
Trips to the Cabin below, starting with ten in each column. As you answer each question on the following pages, add or subtract to each column.


Travel
Travel below, starting with ten in each column. As you answer each question on the following pages, add or subtract to each column.


Food below, starting with ten in each column. As you answer each question on the following pages, add or subtract to each column.


Transportation
Transportation below, starting with ten in each column. As you answer each question on the following pages, add or subtract to each column.


Heat below, starting with ten in each column. As you answer each question on the following pages, add or subtract to each column.


Food choices
Food Choices below, starting with ten in each column. As you answer each question on the following pages, add or subtract to each column.


Winter sports
Winter Sports below, starting with ten in each column. As you answer each question on the following pages, add or subtract to each column.


Which category has the highest score
Which category has the highest score? below, starting with ten in each column. As you answer each question on the following pages, add or subtract to each column.

  • Comfort?

  • Finances?

  • Health?

  • Did you learn about how your choices affect your health (and the health of all of us)?


Summary
Summary below, starting with ten in each column. As you answer each question on the following pages, add or subtract to each column.

  • All energy sources have health consequences.

  • Coal, oil and gas cause the most death and disability of all energy sources.

  • Renewable energy causes death and disability from the large amounts of material and labor needed, as well as energy backup and storage requirements.



Thanks for your attention
Thanks for your Attention! below, starting with ten in each column. As you answer each question on the following pages, add or subtract to each column.


References
References below, starting with ten in each column. As you answer each question on the following pages, add or subtract to each column.

Haddad and Dones, IAEA: http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Magazines/Bulletin/Bull333/33302041419.pdf

Gohlke et al. (2008):Environ Health Perspect. 2008 June; 116(6): A236–A23, Economy, and Environment: Sustainable Energy Choices for a Nation; Julia M. Gohlke, Sharon H. Hrynkow, and Christopher J. Portier


Contact information
Contact Information below, starting with ten in each column. As you answer each question on the following pages, add or subtract to each column.


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