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Unstructured Data and the Role of Natural Language Processing. Philip Resnik Department of Linguistics and Institute for Advanced Computer Studies University of Maryland Wolfram Data Summit September 7, 2012. ♬ Daisy, Daisy….

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Unstructured data and the role of natural language processing

Unstructured Data and the Role of Natural Language Processing

Philip Resnik

Department of Linguistics and

Institute for Advanced Computer Studies

University of Maryland

Wolfram Data Summit

September 7, 2012


ProcessingDaisy, Daisy…

Hiya, guys. What did you think of Obama’s speech last night? I think I liked Michelle’s better.

Beep.

I didn’t watch it. I was playing a nice game of chess.


The statistical revolution in NLP Processing

100%

80%

60%

% “Statistical”

Papers

40%

20%

0%

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

AI Winter

Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Sources: graph adapted from Church, K. (2003) “Speech and Language Processing: Where have we been and where are we going,” Eurospeech, Geneva, Switzerland. Green circle data have been added from figures in Cardie and Mooney (1999).


NLP is no longer about getting machines to understand language like people do.

It’s about building machines that do things with language that people find useful.


Surface methods
Surface methods language like people do.


Surface methods plus categories
Surface methods plus categories language like people do.

Pennebaker, Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count

http://www.liwc.net/tryonlineresults.php


Surface methods plus categories1
Surface methods plus categories language like people do.

Brendan O’Connor, Ramnath Balasubramanyan, Bryan R. Routledge, Noah A. Smith, From Tweets to Polls: Linking Text Sentiment to Public Opinion Time Series, Proceedings of the International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, Washington, DC, May 2010.


Surface methods plus categories2
Surface methods plus categories language like people do.

*Note that Noah Smith did point out this ambiguity!


Surface methods plus hidden structure
Surface methods plus hidden structure language like people do.

natuerlich hat john spass am spiel

of course john has fun with the game

http://www.statmt.org/moses/?n=Moses.Background


One morning I shot an elephant in my pajamas. language like people do.

How he got in my pajamas, I don’t know.

One morning I shot an elephantin my pajamas.

One morning I shot an elephant in my pajamas.


Extracting structured information language like people do.

HPI: Atrial fibrillation. This patient is a 56-year-old white gentleman who has had a history of atrial fib on and off since he had his bypass surgery. Patient was originally diagnosed with coronary artery disease as well as mitral valve problems approximately 3 years ago. Dr. Tirona used to take care of him at that time. He had a bypass surgery as well as mitral valve repair done at that time. Postop he had an episode of A-fib which then resolved spontaneously. He remembers somebody talking to him about cardioversion, but then the A-fib resolved spontaneously. So he was started on Coumadin. He would get some occasional episodes, but usually they are very brief, so he never bothered about them. Of late, over the last few months, he has been getting more frequent episodes and duration of these episodes is also prolonged for a few hours. So he saw Dr. Hagan who has referred him here for further evaluation and treatment. The patient states when he does get the A-fib, he feels very weak, tired, and short of breath. He denies any chest pain. Otherwise he is usually very active physically, he works fulltime as an electrician, and has not had any problems as far as doing his day-to-day work.

MEDICAL HISTORY: 1. Coronary artery disease as mentioned above. 2. Hypertension. 3. Hypercholesterolemia.

.

IMPRESSION: Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in a patient with prior mitral valve disease, currently having more frequent breakthroughs symptoms.


Extracting structured information language like people do.

Diagnosis/Problem

Modifier

Anatomy

Type

fibrillation

-

atrial

-

fibrillation

-

atrial

history

problem

-

mitral_valve

-

weak

-

-

-

tired

-

-

-

short_of_breath

-

-

-

disease

-

coronary_artery

history

hypertension

-

-

history

hypercholesterolemia

-

-

-

fibrillation

paroxysmal

atrial

-

disease

-

mitral_valve

history

HPI: Atrial fibrillation. This patient is a 56-year-old white gentleman who has had a history of atrial fib on and off since he had his bypass surgery. Patient was originally diagnosed with coronary artery disease as well as mitral valve problems approximately 3 years ago. Dr. Tirona used to take care of him at that time. He had a bypass surgery as well as mitral valve repair done at that time. Postop he had an episode of A-fib which then resolved spontaneously. He remembers somebody talking to him about cardioversion, but then the A-fib resolved spontaneously. So he was started on Coumadin. He would get some occasional episodes, but usually they are very brief, so he never bothered about them. Of late, over the last few months, he has been getting more frequent episodes and duration of these episodes is also prolonged for a few hours. So he saw Dr. Hagan who has referred him here for further evaluation and treatment. The patient states when he does get the A-fib, he feels very weak, tired, and short of breath. He denies any chest pain. Otherwise he is usually very active physically, he works fulltime as an electrician, and has not had any problems as far as doing his day-to-day work.

MEDICAL HISTORY: 1. Coronary artery disease as mentioned above. 2. Hypertension. 3. Hypercholesterolemia.

.

IMPRESSION: Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in a patient with prior mitral valve disease, currently having more frequent breakthroughs symptoms.


Extracting structured information language like people do.

Diagnosis/Problem

Modifier

Anatomy

Type

HPI: Atrial fibrillation. This patient is a 56-year-old white gentleman who has had a history of atrial fib on and off since he had his bypass surgery. Patient was originally diagnosed with coronary artery disease as well as mitral valve problems approximately 3 years ago. Dr. Tirona used to take care of him at that time. He had a bypass surgery as well as mitral valve repair done at that time. Postop he had an episode of A-fib which then resolved spontaneously. He remembers somebody talking to him about cardioversion, but then the A-fib resolved spontaneously. So he was started on Coumadin. He would get some occasional episodes, but usually they are very brief, so he never bothered about them. Of late, over the last few months, he has been getting more frequent episodes and duration of these episodes is also prolonged for a few hours. So he saw Dr. Hagan who has referred him here for further evaluation and treatment. The patient states when he does get the A-fib, he feels very weak, tired, and short of breath. He denies any chest pain. Otherwise he is usually very active physically, he works fulltime as an electrician, and has not had any problems as far as doing his day-to-day work.

MEDICAL HISTORY: 1. Coronary artery disease as mentioned above. 2. Hypertension. 3. Hypercholesterolemia.

.

IMPRESSION: Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in a patient with prior mitral valve disease, currently having more frequent breakthroughs symptoms.

fibrillation

-

atrial

-

fibrillation

-

atrial

history

problem

-

mitral_valve

-

weak

-

-

-

tired

-

-

-

short_of_breath

-

-

-

disease

-

coronary_artery

history

hypertension

-

-

history

hypercholesterolemia

-

-

-

fibrillation

paroxysmal

atrial

-

disease

-

mitral_valve

history

394.9

Other and unspecified mitral valve diseases

ICD

427.31

Atrial fibrillation

427.31

427.31

780.79

780.79

786.05

414.01

401.9

272.0

427.31

394.9


To react to this talk on your phone or laptop while you listen: visit go.reactlabs.org and select #EHR.


Medical coders without NLP listen: visit go.reactlabs.org and select #EHR.

Medical coders with NLP


Dr. Martin S. Kohn | Clinical Decision Support: DeepQA, http://www.im.org/Meetings/Past/2012/2012APMWinterMeeting/Documents/Winter%20Meeting%20Presentations/PS%20II_Kohn.pdf


Discovering structure
Discovering structure http://www.im.org/Meetings/Past/2012/2012APMWinterMeeting/Documents/Winter%20Meeting%20Presentations/PS%20II_Kohn.pdf

05_03_02.txt.0002 BEGALA Good evening. Welcome to CROSSFIRE,

coming to you live from the George Washington University in beautiful

downtown Washington, D.C. Tonight in the CROSSFIRE, the case of

the Reverend Paul Shanley, the Roman Catholic priest facing child

rape charges in Massachusetts. Should his superiors be held

responsible? Also, Matt Drudge, founder of the Internet "Drudge

Report." Is he a right-wing muckraker, an Internet gossip or a

legitimate journalist? We'll ask Drudge himself when we get him

in the CROSSFIRE. First, flying the not-so-friendly skies, would

you feel safer if pilots were armed? One outspoken congressional

critic is against having guns in the cockpit. We're going to

introduce her now. Please welcome, Eleanor Holmes Norton, the

Democratic delegate from the District of Columbia. Ms. Norton, thank

you. Welcome back.

05_03_02.txt.0003 CARLSON Now, Ms. Norton, the majority,

the vast majority of commercial airline pilots are strongly in favor

of carrying guns in the cockpit on commercial airliners. You're

against it. What do you as a delegate know about operating a

commercial airliner that the majority of commercial airline pilots

don't know

05_03_02.txt.0004 DELEGATE Well, I know what

Transportation Secretary Norm Mineta tells me, and I know what

Homeland Security Adviser Tom Ridge tells me, and they are against

it. And I think the reason they are against it is you don't want

the guy who's flying one of these big busters up there also with a

gun in his hand trying to protect his plane. You want air marshals

to do that. You want flight attendants to understand how to protect

the cockpit. And you want the redundancies that we have built in,

redundancy after redundancy, working for you. We are panicking the

American people. They say, oh my God, I thought they had the

hearings, I thought they did that. Here come the pilots saying,

oh no, they haven't. We've got to have guns.

05_03_02.txt.0002 BEGALA Good evening. Welcome to CROSSFIRE,

coming to you live from the George Washington University in beautiful

downtown Washington, D.C. Tonight in the CROSSFIRE, the case of

the Reverend Paul Shanley, the Roman Catholic priest facing child

rape charges in Massachusetts. Should his superiors be held

responsible? Also, Matt Drudge, founder of the Internet "Drudge

Report." Is he a right-wing muckraker, an Internet gossip or a

legitimate journalist? We'll ask Drudge himself when we get him

in the CROSSFIRE. First, flying the not-so-friendly skies, would

you feel safer if pilots were armed? One outspoken congressional

critic is against having guns in the cockpit. We're going to

introduce her now. Please welcome, Eleanor Holmes Norton, the

Democratic delegate from the District of Columbia. Ms. Norton, thank

you. Welcome back.

05_03_02.txt.0003 CARLSON Now, Ms. Norton, the majority,

the vast majority of commercial airline pilots are strongly in favor

of carrying guns in the cockpit on commercial airliners. You're

against it. What do you as a delegate know about operating a

commercial airliner that the majority of commercial airline pilots

don't know

05_03_02.txt.0004 DELEGATE Well, I know what

Transportation Secretary Norm Mineta tells me, and I know what

Homeland Security Adviser Tom Ridge tells me, and they are against

it. And I think the reason they are against it is you don't want

the guy who's flying one of these big busters up there also with a

gun in his hand trying to protect his plane. You want air marshals

to do that. You want flight attendants to understand how to protect

the cockpit. And you want the redundancies that we have built in,

redundancy after redundancy, working for you. We are panicking the

American people. They say, oh my God, I thought they had the

hearings, I thought they did that. Here come the pilots saying,

oh no, they haven't. We've got to have guns.

05_03_02.txt.0002 BEGALA Good evening. Welcome to CROSSFIRE,

coming to you live from the George Washington University in beautiful

downtown Washington, D.C. Tonight in the CROSSFIRE, the case of

the Reverend Paul Shanley, the Roman Catholic priest facing child

rape charges in Massachusetts. Should his superiors be held

responsible? Also, Matt Drudge, founder of the Internet "Drudge

Report." Is he a right-wing muckraker, an Internet gossip or a

legitimate journalist? We'll ask Drudge himself when we get him

in the CROSSFIRE. First, flying the not-so-friendly skies, would

you feel safer if pilots were armed? One outspoken congressional

critic is against having guns in the cockpit. We're going to

introduce her now. Please welcome, Eleanor Holmes Norton, the

Democratic delegate from the District of Columbia. Ms. Norton, thank

you. Welcome back.

05_03_02.txt.0003 CARLSON Now, Ms. Norton, the majority,

the vast majority of commercial airline pilots are strongly in favor

of carrying guns in the cockpit on commercial airliners. You're

against it. What do you as a delegate know about operating a

commercial airliner that the majority of commercial airline pilots

don't know

05_03_02.txt.0004 DELEGATE Well, I know what

Transportation Secretary Norm Mineta tells me, and I know what

Homeland Security Adviser Tom Ridge tells me, and they are against

it. And I think the reason they are against it is you don't want

the guy who's flying one of these big busters up there also with a

gun in his hand trying to protect his plane. You want air marshals

to do that. You want flight attendants to understand how to protect

the cockpit. And you want the redundancies that we have built in,

redundancy after redundancy, working for you. We are panicking the

American people. They say, oh my God, I thought they had the

hearings, I thought they did that. Here come the pilots saying,

oh no, they haven't. We've got to have guns.

Looking at just word counts often gives you a mish-mash.


Discovering structure http://www.im.org/Meetings/Past/2012/2012APMWinterMeeting/Documents/Winter%20Meeting%20Presentations/PS%20II_Kohn.pdf

05_03_02.txt.0002 BEGALA Good evening. Welcome to CROSSFIRE,

coming to you live from the George Washington University in beautiful

downtown Washington, D.C. Tonight in the CROSSFIRE, the case of

the Reverend Paul Shanley, the Roman Catholic priest facing child

rape charges in Massachusetts. Should his superiors be held

responsible? Also, Matt Drudge, founder of the Internet "Drudge

Report." Is he a right-wing muckraker, an Internet gossip or a

legitimate journalist? We'll ask Drudge himself when we get him

in the CROSSFIRE. First, flying the not-so-friendly skies, would

you feel safer if pilots were armed? One outspoken congressional

critic is against having guns in the cockpit. We're going to

introduce her now. Please welcome, Eleanor Holmes Norton, the

Democratic delegate from the District of Columbia. Ms. Norton, thank

you. Welcome back.

05_03_02.txt.0003 CARLSON Now, Ms. Norton, the majority,

the vast majority of commercial airline pilots are strongly in favor

of carrying guns in the cockpit on commercial airliners. You're

against it. What do you as a delegate know about operating a

commercial airliner that the majority of commercial airline pilots

don't know

05_03_02.txt.0004 DELEGATE Well, I know what

Transportation Secretary Norm Mineta tells me, and I know what

Homeland Security Adviser Tom Ridge tells me, and they are against

it. And I think the reason they are against it is you don't want

the guy who's flying one of these big busters up there also with a

gun in his hand trying to protect his plane. You want air marshals

to do that. You want flight attendants to understand how to protect

the cockpit. And you want the redundancies that we have built in,

redundancy after redundancy, working for you. We are panicking the

American people. They say, oh my God, I thought they had the

hearings, I thought they did that. Here come the pilots saying,

oh no, they haven't. We've got to have guns.

05_03_02.txt.0002 BEGALA Good evening. Welcome to CROSSFIRE,

coming to you live from the George Washington University in beautiful

downtown Washington, D.C. Tonight in the CROSSFIRE, the case of

the Reverend Paul Shanley, the Roman Catholic priest facing child

rape charges in Massachusetts. Should his superiors be held

responsible? Also, Matt Drudge, founder of the Internet "Drudge

Report." Is he a right-wing muckraker, an Internet gossip or a

legitimate journalist? We'll ask Drudge himself when we get him

in the CROSSFIRE. First, flying the not-so-friendly skies, would

you feel safer if pilots were armed? One outspoken congressional

critic is against having guns in the cockpit. We're going to

introduce her now. Please welcome, Eleanor Holmes Norton, the

Democratic delegate from the District of Columbia. Ms. Norton, thank

you. Welcome back.

05_03_02.txt.0003 CARLSON Now, Ms. Norton, the majority,

the vast majority of commercial airline pilots are strongly in favor

of carrying guns in the cockpit on commercial airliners. You're

against it. What do you as a delegate know about operating a

commercial airliner that the majority of commercial airline pilots

don't know

05_03_02.txt.0004 DELEGATE Well, I know what

Transportation Secretary Norm Mineta tells me, and I know what

Homeland Security Adviser Tom Ridge tells me, and they are against

it. And I think the reason they are against it is you don't want

the guy who's flying one of these big busters up there also with a

gun in his hand trying to protect his plane. You want air marshals

to do that. You want flight attendants to understand how to protect

the cockpit. And you want the redundancies that we have built in,

redundancy after redundancy, working for you. We are panicking the

American people. They say, oh my God, I thought they had the

hearings, I thought they did that. Here come the pilots saying,

oh no, they haven't. We've got to have guns.

05_03_02.txt.0002 BEGALA Good evening. Welcome to CROSSFIRE,

coming to you live from the George Washington University in beautiful

downtown Washington, D.C. Tonight in the CROSSFIRE, the case of

the Reverend Paul Shanley, the Roman Catholic priest facing child

rape charges in Massachusetts. Should his superiors be held

responsible? Also, Matt Drudge, founder of the Internet "Drudge

Report." Is he a right-wing muckraker, an Internet gossip or a

legitimate journalist? We'll ask Drudge himself when we get him

in the CROSSFIRE. First, flying the not-so-friendly skies, would

you feel safer if pilots were armed? One outspoken congressional

critic is against having guns in the cockpit. We're going to

introduce her now. Please welcome, Eleanor Holmes Norton, the

Democratic delegate from the District of Columbia. Ms. Norton, thank

you. Welcome back.

05_03_02.txt.0003 CARLSON Now, Ms. Norton, the majority,

the vast majority of commercial airline pilots are strongly in favor

of carrying guns in the cockpit on commercial airliners. You're

against it. What do you as a delegate know about operating a

commercial airliner that the majority of commercial airline pilots

don't know

05_03_02.txt.0004 DELEGATE Well, I know what

Transportation Secretary Norm Mineta tells me, and I know what

Homeland Security Adviser Tom Ridge tells me, and they are against

it. And I think the reason they are against it is you don't want

the guy who's flying one of these big busters up there also with a

gun in his hand trying to protect his plane. You want air marshals

to do that. You want flight attendants to understand how to protect

the cockpit. And you want the redundancies that we have built in,

redundancy after redundancy, working for you. We are panicking the

American people. They say, oh my God, I thought they had the

hearings, I thought they did that. Here come the pilots saying,

oh no, they haven't. We've got to have guns.

Bayesian topic models* discover the distinct topics interwoven in documents.

*Wikipedia: Topic Model; Blei et al. 2003


Model: detecting topic shifts http://www.im.org/Meetings/Past/2012/2012APMWinterMeeting/Documents/Winter%20Meeting%20Presentations/PS%20II_Kohn.pdf


Model: detecting topic shifts http://www.im.org/Meetings/Past/2012/2012APMWinterMeeting/Documents/Winter%20Meeting%20Presentations/PS%20II_Kohn.pdf


Model topic shift tendency
Model: topic shift tendency http://www.im.org/Meetings/Past/2012/2012APMWinterMeeting/Documents/Winter%20Meeting%20Presentations/PS%20II_Kohn.pdf


Ifill http://www.im.org/Meetings/Past/2012/2012APMWinterMeeting/Documents/Winter%20Meeting%20Presentations/PS%20II_Kohn.pdf, moderator: Terrible. Yes, she was constrained by the agreed debate rules. But she gave not the slightest sign of chafing against them or looking for ways to follow up the many unanswered questions or self-contradictory answers. This was the big news of the evening. Katie Couric, and for that matter Jim Lehrer, have never looked so good.


Model: topic shift tendency http://www.im.org/Meetings/Past/2012/2012APMWinterMeeting/Documents/Winter%20Meeting%20Presentations/PS%20II_Kohn.pdf


Take aways
Take-aways http://www.im.org/Meetings/Past/2012/2012APMWinterMeeting/Documents/Winter%20Meeting%20Presentations/PS%20II_Kohn.pdf

  • The role of NLP is not “understanding”. It’s helping people do useful things with language.

  • Shallow methods work extremely well… except when they don’t. Language is replete with underlying structure.

  • The deep value to look for in NLP is in bringing that structure to the surface and making it accessible to human insight.


Thanks
Thanks! http://www.im.org/Meetings/Past/2012/2012APMWinterMeeting/Documents/Winter%20Meeting%20Presentations/PS%20II_Kohn.pdf


reactlabs.org http://www.im.org/Meetings/Past/2012/2012APMWinterMeeting/Documents/Winter%20Meeting%20Presentations/PS%20II_Kohn.pdf


Four years ago, I know that many Americans felt a fresh excitement about the possibilities of a new president. That choice was not the choice of our party, but Americans always come together after elections. We're a good and generous people, and we are united by so much more than what divides us. When that election was over, when the yard signs came down and the television commercials finally came off the air, Americans were eager to go back to work, to live our lives the way Americans always have, optimistic and positive and confident in the future. That very optimism is uniquely American. It's what brought us to America. We're a nation of immigrants, we're the children and grandchildren and great-grandchildren of the ones who wanted a better life. The driven ones. The ones who woke up at night, hearing that voice telling them that life in a place called America could be better. They came, not just in pursuit of the riches of this world, but for the richness of this life.


Take aways1
Take-aways excitement about the possibilities of a new president. That choice was not the choice of our party, but Americans always come together after elections. We're a good and generous people, and we are united by so much more than what divides us. When that election was over, when the yard signs came down and the television commercials finally came off the air, Americans were eager to go back to work,

  • The role of NLP is not “understanding”. It’s helping people do useful things with language.

  • Shallow methods work extremely well… except when they don’t. Language is replete with underlying structure.

  • The deep value to look for in NLP is in bringing that structure to the surface and making it accessible to human insight.


Thanks1
Thanks! excitement about the possibilities of a new president. That choice was not the choice of our party, but Americans always come together after elections. We're a good and generous people, and we are united by so much more than what divides us. When that election was over, when the yard signs came down and the television commercials finally came off the air, Americans were eager to go back to work,


"In this 10-year time frame, . . . we will have perfected speech recognition and speech output well enough that those will become a standard part of the interface."

Bill Gates, 1997


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