Treatment of AIDS. “Antiretroviral therapy & vaccines”. HAART(Highly active antiretroviral therapy). In HAART we use antiretroviral drugs which interfere with the life cycle of HIV and inhibit there growth. In HAART there are 4 different kinds of antiretroviral drugs are used-.
“Antiretroviral therapy & vaccines”
In HAART we use antiretroviral drugs which interfere with the life cycle of HIV and inhibit there growth
NRTI( nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor):-
NRTI are similar to structure of normal DNA bases except 3 prime –OH group and phosphate group.NRTI is activated inside the cell by the additon of three phosphate groups to their deoxyribose moiety, to form NRTI triphosphate.This phosphorylation step is carried out by cellular kinase enzyme
It is similar to structure of normal DNA bases except 3 prime –OH group so the NtRTI is incorporated into the growing chain and terminates the chain elongation during replication.
These drugs act via non-competetive binding to a hydrophobic pocket close to the reverse transcriptase enzyme of HIV
Processing of large HIV precursor protein encoded by gag ang gag-pol genes of HIV into structural proteins of the viral core is performed via proteolytic cleavage by HIV encoded aspartic protease and is necessary for maturation of immature virus particle. These drugs are synthetic analogues of the HIV protein and block the action of HIV protease. Protease inhibitors also decrease CD4 apoptosis through decreased CD4 interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme(ICE or caspase 1)
This type of drug prevents the fusion of HIV to the target cells. This type of drug corresponds to 36 amino acids within C-terminal hapted repeat region(HR2) of HIV1 gp41 subunit of the viral envelope (env) protein. This prevents the conformational changes to form a stable complex required membrane fusion to target cell.
The standard combination of drugs may be as follows according to clinical trails, adverse effect, efficacy-
Several approaches are taken to develop vaccine against HIV, These include-