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“ I. Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it.”. Newton’s First Law of Motion. Newton’s First Law of Motion. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Newton’s Third Law of Motion.

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I. Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it.”

  • Newton’s First Law of Motion

Newton’s First Law of Motion





All humans are endowed with certain inalienable rights: life, liberty, pursuit of happiness


English bill of rights 1689
English Bill of Rights (1689) life, liberty, pursuit of happiness

1. That the pretended power of suspending the laws or the execution of laws by regal authority without consent of Parliament is illegal;

4. That levying money for or to the use of the Crown, without grant of Parliament, is illegal;

5. That it is the right of the subjects to petition the king,


English bill of rights 16891

6. That the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law;

English Bill of Rights (1689)

9. That the freedom of speech and debates or proceedings in Parliament ought not to be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of Parliament;

10. That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted;


John Locke (1632-1704) kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law;

John Locke (1632-1704)


A kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law; Salon of the Enlightenment


Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law;

Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755)


Voltaire (1694-1778) kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law;


Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law;


The french revolution 1789 1799
The French Revolution 1789-1799 kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law;


Louis XIV: “The Sun King” (1638-1715) kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law;


Louis XV “Le Bien Aime” (r. 1723-1774) kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law;


The French and Indian War was a kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law;

great financial and territorial loss

for France


The American War for Independence inspired kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law;

French Revolutionaries


Louis XVI (r. 1774-1792) kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law;



Cahiers of carcassone
Cahiers of Carcassone of Notables

2. Nevertheless the civil rights of those of the king's subjects who are not Catholics should be confirmed, and they should be admitted to positions and offices in the public administration, without however extending this privilege - which reason and humanity alike demand for them - to judicial or police functions or to those of public instruction.


Cahiers
Cahiers of Notables

7. The rights which have just been restored to the nation should be consecrated as fundamental principles of the monarchy, and their perpetual and unalterable enjoyment should be assured by a solemn law, which should so define the rights both of the monarch and of the people that their violation shall hereafter be impossible.


Cahiers1
Cahiers of Notables

8. Among these rights the following should be especially noted: the nation should hereafter be subject only to such laws and taxes as it shall itself freely ratify.

9. The meetings of the Estates General of the kingdom should be fixed for definite periods


Cahiers2
Cahiers of Notables

10. In order to assure to the third estate the influence to which it is entitled in view of the number of its members, the amount of its contributions to the public treasury, and the manifold interests which it has to defend or promote in the national assemblies, its votes in the assembly should be taken and counted by head.


Cahiers3
Cahiers of Notables

13. Since individual liberty is intimately associated with national liberty, his Majesty is hereby petitioned not to permit that it be hereafter interfered with by arbitrary orders for imprisonment. . .

14. Freedom should be granted also to the press, which should however be subjected, by means of strict regulations to the principles of religion, morality, and public decency. .



The third revolt: Parisian Tennis Court, June 20, 1789Sans Culottes seize the Bastille, July 14, 1789



Events of summer 1789
Events of Summer 1789 Tennis Court, June 20, 1789

  • Third Estate becomes National Assembly

  • “Great Fear” grips the countryside—true social revolution

  • NA abolishes feudalism Aug. 4, 1789

  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen—Aug. 26, 1789




Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794) Tennis Court, June 20, 1789


The Reign of Terror (1793-1794) Tennis Court, June 20, 1789


La marseillaise

Arise children of the fatherland Tennis Court, June 20, 1789The day of glory has arrivedAgainst us tyranny'sBloody standard is raisedListen to the sound in the fieldsThe howling of these fearsome soldiersThey are coming into our midstTo cut the throats of your sons and consorts

To arms citizens Form your battalionsMarch, marchLet impure bloodWater our furrows

La Marseillaise



Causes and agents of revolution

Louis XIV, XV, XVI Tennis Court, June 20, 1789

Enlightenment

French/Indian War 1756-63

American Revolution

Taxes

Crop failures

Calonne

Nobility revolts against Assembly of Notables

Third Estate

Abbe Sieyes

Sans Culottes

Peasantry

National Assembly

Causes and Agents of Revolution


Effects outcomes of french revolution
Effects/Outcomes of French Revolution Tennis Court, June 20, 1789

  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

  • End of Feudalism

  • End of French Monarchy

  • Church weakened

  • Nobility declines

  • France made a Republic

  • Bourgeoisie in power?

  • Napoleon Bonaparte becomes Emperor


The mexican war for independence
The Mexican War for Independence Tennis Court, June 20, 1789


Charles III enacted the Bourbon Reforms Tennis Court, June 20, 1789

(r. 1759-1788)



Napoleon as Romantic Hero: David’s Tennis Court, June 20, 1789Napoleon Crossing the Alps (1800)


Joseph “Botillas” Bonaparte: Tennis Court, June 20, 1789

Ruler of Spain (1808-1813)



Father Jose Maria Morelos (1765-1815) Independence, Sept. 16, 1810


Agustin de Iturbide: First Emperor of Mexico Independence, Sept. 16, 1810

(r. 1821-22)



Causes of the mexican war for independence
Causes of the Mexican War for Independence on) 1833-1855

  • Bourbon Reforms (1760-1800)

    • Alcabala (sales tax)

    • Royal Monopolies on liquor, stamps, salt, mercury

    • Increasing numbers of Peninsulare administrators

    • Greater presence of royal military

  • Social/Ethnic hierarchy stifled advancement of mestizoes, Native Americans and enslaved persons

  • Unequal relationship between mother country and colony


Agents of war for independence
Agents of War for Independence on) 1833-1855

  • Father Miguel Hidalgo—Grito de Dolores

    • Father Jose Maria Morelos

    • Mestizo followers

    • Virgine de Guadalupe?

  • Napoleon Bonaparte

  • Agustin de Iturbide


Results
Results on) 1833-1855

  • Violent oppression of Hidalgo’s revolt by criollo military

  • Iturbide’s “top down” revolution in 1821

  • “Age of Caudillos” (1822-1870s)

  • La Riforma tries to break power of caudillos

  • Emperor Maximilien I

  • Porfirio Diaz “El Presidente” (1876-1910)













Causes of mexican revolution 1910 1920
Causes of Mexican Revolution 1910-1920 Education

  • Persistence of Colonial Inequalities

  • Caudillos—Santa Anna

    • Loses Texas

    • Loses ‘Far North’=US Southwest

  • La Riforma —Benito Juarez

  • Foreign Invasion-Maximilien I

  • Porfirio Diaz, pres. 1876-1910

  • Creelman Interview, 1908


Agents of the mexican revolution
Agents of the Mexican Revolution Education

  • Creelman Interview

  • Porfirio Diaz

  • Francisco Madero

  • Huerta

  • Pancho Villa

  • Emiliano Zapata

  • Venustiano Carranza

  • peones


Outcomes of mexican revolution
Outcomes of Mexican Revolution Education

  • Chaos and disorder

  • V. Carranza becomes president

  • Mexican Constitution of 1917

  • Land reform but not until 1930s

  • Further conflicts over religion

  • Later on ejidos are privatized in 1980s—repeal of reform?


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