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Newton’s First Law of Motion - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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“ I. Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it.”. Newton’s First Law of Motion. Newton’s First Law of Motion. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Newton’s Third Law of Motion.

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Newton’s First Law of Motion

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“I. Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it.”

  • Newton’s First Law of Motion

Newton’s First Law of Motion

For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Newton’s Third Law of Motion

The acceleration of gravity in a vaccum is 9.8 m/s^2

The pancreas secretes insulin which regulates the blood sugar level in the body.

All humans are endowed with certain inalienable rights: life, liberty, pursuit of happiness

English Bill of Rights (1689)

1. That the pretended power of suspending the laws or the execution of laws by regal authority without consent of Parliament is illegal;

4. That levying money for or to the use of the Crown, without grant of Parliament, is illegal;

5. That it is the right of the subjects to petition the king,

6. That the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law;

English Bill of Rights (1689)

9. That the freedom of speech and debates or proceedings in Parliament ought not to be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of Parliament;

10. That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted;

John Locke (1632-1704)

John Locke (1632-1704)

A Salon of the Enlightenment

Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755)

Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755)

Voltaire (1694-1778)

Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)

The French Revolution 1789-1799

Louis XIV: “The Sun King” (1638-1715)

Louis XV “Le Bien Aime” (r. 1723-1774)

The French and Indian War was a

great financial and territorial loss

for France

The American War for Independence inspired

French Revolutionaries

Louis XVI (r. 1774-1792)

The first revolt: The Nobility rejects Calonne’s Assembly of Notables

Cahiers of Carcassone

2. Nevertheless the civil rights of those of the king's subjects who are not Catholics should be confirmed, and they should be admitted to positions and offices in the public administration, without however extending this privilege - which reason and humanity alike demand for them - to judicial or police functions or to those of public instruction.


7. The rights which have just been restored to the nation should be consecrated as fundamental principles of the monarchy, and their perpetual and unalterable enjoyment should be assured by a solemn law, which should so define the rights both of the monarch and of the people that their violation shall hereafter be impossible.


8. Among these rights the following should be especially noted: the nation should hereafter be subject only to such laws and taxes as it shall itself freely ratify.

9. The meetings of the Estates General of the kingdom should be fixed for definite periods


10. In order to assure to the third estate the influence to which it is entitled in view of the number of its members, the amount of its contributions to the public treasury, and the manifold interests which it has to defend or promote in the national assemblies, its votes in the assembly should be taken and counted by head.


13. Since individual liberty is intimately associated with national liberty, his Majesty is hereby petitioned not to permit that it be hereafter interfered with by arbitrary orders for imprisonment. . .

14. Freedom should be granted also to the press, which should however be subjected, by means of strict regulations to the principles of religion, morality, and public decency. .

The second revolt: The Third Estate takes the Oath of the Tennis Court, June 20, 1789

The third revolt: Parisian Sans Culottes seize the Bastille, July 14, 1789

The fourth revolt: The peasants overthrow the nobility

Events of Summer 1789

  • Third Estate becomes National Assembly

  • “Great Fear” grips the countryside—true social revolution

  • NA abolishes feudalism Aug. 4, 1789

  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen—Aug. 26, 1789

The Women’s March on Versailles, October 5-6, 1789

The Execution of Louis XVI (January 21, 1793)

Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794)

The Reign of Terror (1793-1794)

Arise children of the fatherlandThe day of glory has arrivedAgainst us tyranny'sBloody standard is raisedListen to the sound in the fieldsThe howling of these fearsome soldiersThey are coming into our midstTo cut the throats of your sons and consorts

To arms citizens Form your battalionsMarch, marchLet impure bloodWater our furrows

La Marseillaise

Napoleon Bonaparte seizes power, 18th of Brumaire

Louis XIV, XV, XVI


French/Indian War 1756-63

American Revolution


Crop failures


Nobility revolts against Assembly of Notables

Third Estate

Abbe Sieyes

Sans Culottes


National Assembly

Causes and Agents of Revolution

Effects/Outcomes of French Revolution

  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

  • End of Feudalism

  • End of French Monarchy

  • Church weakened

  • Nobility declines

  • France made a Republic

  • Bourgeoisie in power?

  • Napoleon Bonaparte becomes Emperor

The Mexican War for Independence

Charles III enacted the Bourbon Reforms

(r. 1759-1788)

Jose de Galvez carried out the Bourbon Reforms in New Spain

Napoleon as Romantic Hero: David’s Napoleon Crossing the Alps (1800)

Joseph “Botillas” Bonaparte:

Ruler of Spain (1808-1813)

Don Miguel Hidalgo: Began Mexico’s Struggle for Independence, Sept. 16, 1810

Father Jose Maria Morelos (1765-1815)

Agustin de Iturbide: First Emperor of Mexico

(r. 1821-22)

Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna: President of Mexico (off and on) 1833-1855

Causes of the Mexican War for Independence

  • Bourbon Reforms (1760-1800)

    • Alcabala (sales tax)

    • Royal Monopolies on liquor, stamps, salt, mercury

    • Increasing numbers of Peninsulare administrators

    • Greater presence of royal military

  • Social/Ethnic hierarchy stifled advancement of mestizoes, Native Americans and enslaved persons

  • Unequal relationship between mother country and colony

Agents of War for Independence

  • Father Miguel Hidalgo—Grito de Dolores

    • Father Jose Maria Morelos

    • Mestizo followers

    • Virgine de Guadalupe?

  • Napoleon Bonaparte

  • Agustin de Iturbide


  • Violent oppression of Hidalgo’s revolt by criollo military

  • Iturbide’s “top down” revolution in 1821

  • “Age of Caudillos” (1822-1870s)

  • La Riforma tries to break power of caudillos

  • Emperor Maximilien I

  • Porfirio Diaz “El Presidente” (1876-1910)

Benito Juarez: President in 1861 and leader of the Liberal Reforma

Porfirio Diaz: “Effective Suffrage, no re-election!” ruled Mexico 1876-1910

Francisco Madero: Coahuila Intellectual turned Revolutionary

Pres. William Howard Taft, a Progressive Republican, threw US support to Madero

Pancho Villa: Populist Gaucho Rebel from Chihuahua

Emiliano Zapata: Populist Rebel from the South (Morelos)

Victoriano Huerta: Former Diaz Military Leader turned Madero strongman

Venustiano Carranza: Norteno Revolutionary from Coahuila

Pres. Woodrow Wilson, a Progressive Democrat, threw US support to Carranza

Alvaro Obregon: Former Carranza General turned Presidente in 1920--brought peace to Mexico

Jose Vasconcelos: Mexico’s First Minister of Public Education

Causes of Mexican Revolution 1910-1920

  • Persistence of Colonial Inequalities

  • Caudillos—Santa Anna

    • Loses Texas

    • Loses ‘Far North’=US Southwest

  • La Riforma —Benito Juarez

  • Foreign Invasion-Maximilien I

  • Porfirio Diaz, pres. 1876-1910

  • Creelman Interview, 1908

Agents of the Mexican Revolution

  • Creelman Interview

  • Porfirio Diaz

  • Francisco Madero

  • Huerta

  • Pancho Villa

  • Emiliano Zapata

  • Venustiano Carranza

  • peones

Outcomes of Mexican Revolution

  • Chaos and disorder

  • V. Carranza becomes president

  • Mexican Constitution of 1917

  • Land reform but not until 1930s

  • Further conflicts over religion

  • Later on ejidos are privatized in 1980s—repeal of reform?

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