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Local Market Win win Integration of science and policy. What are some of the forces leading to path dependence?. High Exit Costs. Aqueducts. Policy Image. Professionalization. Benefit and Risk Spreading.

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Local Market Win win Integration of science and policy

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  • Local

  • Market

  • Win win

  • Integration of

    science and


  • What are some of the forces leading to path dependence?

High Exit Costs


Policy Image

  • Professionalization

Benefit and Risk Spreading

  • While the California State Water Project's main purpose is to store and transport water, many of its facilities were designed with recreation in mind. Tent and RV camping, boating, fishing, swimming, waterskiing, horseback riding, picnicking, hiking, photography, and many other activities are available at DWR facilities.


  • “The one process ongoing in the 1980s that will take millions of years to correct is the loss of genetic and species diversity by the destruction of natural habitats. This is the folly that our descendants are least likely to forgive us.” E.O. Wilson

Endangered Species Act

Balancing Business Interests and Endangered Species Protection, By Andrew J. Hoffman, Max H. Bazerman and Steven L. Yaffee

October 15, 1997


Clean Water Act, reauthorized 1987

  • Solutions

    • “The Clean Water Act should aggressively address non-point source pollution from watersheds and also point source pollution from sanitary sewer overflows, combined sewer overflows, and storm sewer discharges.”

    • “Water quality should be protected at the source through cooperative partnerships that utilize financial incentives or other market based mechanisms.“

      • American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 

Clean Air Act 1990 Amendments

Superfund, reauthorized 986

  • Endangered Species Act of 1973

    • Passes Senate on voice vote

    • House 355-4

    • Reauthorized in 1978 and 1982 on voice votes

  • Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972

    • Passes Senate 74-0, House 336-11

Federalist #51, Madison

  • Ambition must be made to counteract ambition. If men were angels, no govt would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on govt would be necessary

  • In framing a govt which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the govt to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself.

Different Bases of Support

  • House of Representatives= only directly elected officials; every two years

  • Senate= every six years; are selected by State legislatures until 1913

  • President= selected by electoral college; state legislatures; no popular vote

  • Judiciary= appointed by President, confirmed by Senate. Life-time appointment

Checks and Balances

  • President can nominate judges; propose, veto laws, appeal to public

  • Congress- approves budget, impeach president and judges, determine number and jurisdiction of courts, Senate confirms judges

  • Courts- can declare executive actions and laws unconstitutional.


House Vote 477 - H.R.2454: On Passage American Clean Energy and Security Act

FROM: House Vote 477 - H.R.2454: On Passage American Clean Energy and Security Act, New York Times, Feb 10, 2010


McCain’s LCV Lifetime Scores

  • No room for moderates in GOP?

Pew Research Center; Independents Take Center Stage in Obama Era; http://people-press.org/report/?pageid=1524 ; May 21, 2009

A Widening Gap: Republican and Democratic Views on Climate Change, Riley E. Dunlap and Aaron M. McCright

Decline of Liberalism

Progressive Values Dominant-- But Need to Rebuild Trust in Effectiveness of Government Action, http://www.progressivestates.org/node/23897

  • "Which do you think should be a higher priority for the Obama administration right now: taking major steps to improve the U.S. economy, or taking major steps to reduce global warming?“

  • Improve Economy 85%

  • Reduce Global Warming 12%

  • Unsure  3%

USA Today/Gallup Poll. Dec. 11-13, 2009

Center for Climate Strategies & States’ Global Warming Policy

International Conference on Climate Change

March 2-4, 2008


  • Heartland Institute has created an outside management consulting nonprofit called “Climate Skeptics Inc.” (CSI)


  • Heartland Institute has created an outside management consulting nonprofit called “Climate Skeptics Inc.” (CSI)

  • CSI has already been hired by several governors to create their global warming policy

  • CSI will manage several official “Governor’s Study Commissions on Climate Change”

  • CSI has raised millions of dollars already from conservative foundations, big oil, and coal

And CSI will control:

  • The commission processes, including voting procedures

  • The list of policy options under consideration

  • All meetings of the commissions & subgroups

  • Writing of all presentations, reports, meeting minutes, and technical information

  • The commission reports will inform future legislation and the governors’ plans for global warming policy via executive orders


  • Heartland’s James Taylor has been hired as special cabinet-level adviser to a governor, but is also funded by a conservative foundation

  • James will write the governor’s official plan to address global warming in his state

The Climate Change Lobby Explosion



By Marianne Lavelle | February 24, 2009

  • Ideological differences between parties

  • Lack of public consensus

  • Influence of organized interests

Contrasting Perspectives on Origins of Gridlock?

  • “No nation will be immune to the impacts of climate change. However, the distribution of impacts is likely to be inherently unequal and tilted against many of the world’s poorest regions, which have the least economic, institutional, scientific and technical capacity to cope and adapt.”

  • World Bank, Turn Down the Heat

  • http://climatechange.worldbank.org/sites/default/files/Turn_Down_the_heat_Why_a_4_degree_centrigrade_warmer_world_must_be_avoided.pdf

“Sea-level rise impacts are projected to be asymmetrical even within regions and countries. Of the impacts projected for 31 developing countries, only 10 cities account for two-thirds of the total exposure to extreme floods. Highly vulnerable cities are to be found in Mozambique, Madagascar, Mexico, Venezuela, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam.” XVI

The Inequality of Climate Change

By ANNIE LOWREYhttp://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/11/12/the-inequality-of-climate-change/

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