Chapter Nine Voting, Elections and Campaigns. How Do We Vote. Straight-Ticket Voting Party-Centered Voting Split-Ticket Voting Candidate-Centered Voting Issue Voting Prospective Voting Retrospective Voting. Election Process. Party Nomination
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Chapter NineVoting, Elections and Campaigns
Process that each party goes through to decide which candidate will represent their party in the general election. Generally called the PRIMARY.
Process in which the candidate from each party compete against each other. Winner of this process wins the office.
For Congress & The President
Congressional Nomination Process is a series 435 different elections processes (each district has their own set of primaries). The person winning a PLURALITYof their party’s votes receives their party nomination. A handful of states require that election winners must receive a majority of the votes cast.
DIRECT ELECTION PROCESS
Presidential Nomination Process is a series of 50+ separate contests in which the person winning a MAJORITYof their party’s delegates receives their party nomination.
WATCH THE POWER POINT ON THE PRESIDENTIALNOMINATION PROCESS.
INDIRECT ELECTION PROCESS
After EACH party(and there are more than just two parties) has nominated their candidate the nominated candidates face off in the GENERAL ELECTION. As previously noted, the winner of the GENERAL ELECTION is the person who will then become the elected official.
An election by which each party selects the ONE candidate that will
Represent their party in the general election.
The winner of this election simply gets to represent their party in the
General election, they DO NOT win the right to hold any elected office.
Three types of primaries
Primaries in which members must declare a party (be a registered
member of that party) , and by doing so they are limited to voting
ONLY in their party’s primary
This type of primary prevents independents from voting.
New York, Florida and Pennsylvania are some of the states that
use this type of primary.
These are primaries in which independents can vote in either (but not
both) party’s primary. They simply ask for which ballot they want.
Massachusetts, New Jersey and Oregon are some states that use
In these primaries individuals may request a ballot for either party.
Individuals no not register as a member of any party.
Missouri uses the OPEN PRIMARY method.
The type of primary that is used can greatly influence the outcome
of some primary contests.
2000 Primaries and Sen. John McCain of Arizona.
The person currently holding an office.
A Congressional election in which there
is no INCUMBENT.
A Congressional district that is certain to vote for the candidate of one party.
US House of Representatives
As the image to the left demonstrates, Americans do not usually have a high level of confidence in or approval for the job being done by the
When a member of Congress chooses to run for re-election, they win an overwhelming percent of the time.
Since WWII approximatley 92% of all House of Rep. incumbents, that run for re-election, win re-election. Incumbent members of the Senate have won 78% of the time.
Can we explain how/why this happens, especially in light of the information presented on the previous slide dealing with
Congressional Job Approval.
As was demonstrated on a previous slide, the American people put very little confidence in the job that Congress as a whole is doing. But, when we ask Americans how their individual member of Congress is doing we find that most have a much higher regard for the job THEIR MEMBER is doing.
WHY DO YOU THINK THAT IS SO?
The Party Nomination Process
The General Election Process
Once each party has identified the person that will be their nominee
the general election campaign begins.
It is the winner of this election that will become the
President of the United States.
The general election is always held on the
first Tuesday after the first Monday in November.
Originally, the President would be the person that won the majority
of the votes in the ELECTORAL COLLEGE, and the Vice-President
would be the person that won the second most.
(This was changed with the passage of the 12th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1804)
The electoral college is a method of indirectly electing the President
And Vice-President of the United States.
It is based on the idea that the registered voters of each state will
elect ELECTORS (members of the Electoral College).
Those electors then meet in their respective State Capitals in early December to cast their Vote in two separate elections for President & Vice-President.
Votes for President
Is signed by the
State Sec. of State
and it is sent to the
On January 6th, the President of the Senate opens each of the “CERTIFICATES” from each state, reads and counts the votes.
The individual receiving the absolute majority of the electoral votes,
currently 270 of 538, for president becomes president and the
individual receiving the absolute majority of the electoral votes
For vice-resident becomes vice president.
The number of electoral votes each state has is based on the number
of members of Congress that they have.
Missouri has 9 members of the U.S. House of Representatives
Two (2) members of the U.S. Senate.
Therefore, the State of Missouri has a total of
eleven (11) ELECTORAL VOTES.
CAN THE NUMBER OF ELECTORAL VOTES A STATE HAS CHANGE?
It can change every 10 years when Congress reapportions the seats
based on the U.S. Census.
California gained 8 electoral votes between 1981 and 2001
New York lost 5 electoral votes between 1981 and 2001
Notice where the gains and
Losses have been:
– The old Steel Belt
-- “Rust Belt”
-- “Old” Country
-- Democratic Areas
– The Sun Belt
-- Border States
-- “New” Country
-- Republican Areas