Supply chain management
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Supply Chain Management. Chang-Yang Lin, PhD Professor and Coordinator of CIS Eastern Kentucky University. SCM and Inaccuracy Problems. On a typical day in a U.S. supermarket, 8.2% of the items are out of stock.

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Supply Chain Management

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Supply chain management

Supply Chain Management

Chang-Yang Lin, PhD

Professor and Coordinator of CIS

Eastern Kentucky University


Scm and inaccuracy problems

SCM and Inaccuracy Problems

  • On a typical day in a U.S. supermarket, 8.2% of the items are out of stock.

  • 33% of out-of-stock items are located in the store, just not in the correct location.

  • The cost of stockouts in U.S. supermarkets are estimated at $7 to $12 billion of sales.

  • Before being stored on store shelves, items pass through several processes, including order processing, fulfillment, staging, shipment, receiving, short-term storage, and finally shelving.

EKU Business


Supply chain management

A Typical Supply Chain

a coordinated system of entities, activities,

information and resources involved in moving

a product or service from supplier to customer


Supply chain management

A Supply Chain

a network of organizations and facilities

that transforms raw materials into

products delivered to customers

also includes transportation companies, warehouses, & inventories and some means for transmitting messages & information


Supply chain management

  • Dell’s own channel for

  • manufacturing and selling

  • eliminated

  • distributors and

  • retailers


Supply chain management1

Supply Chain Management

  • SCM is the process of planning, implementing, and controlling the operations of the supply chain with the purpose to satisfy customer requirements as efficiently as possible

  • SCM spans all movement and storage of raw materials, work-in-process inventory, and finished goods from point-of-origin to point-of-consumption

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Scm problems

SCM Problems

  • Distribution network configuration: Number and location of suppliers, production facilities, distribution centers, warehouses and customers.

  • Distribution strategy: Centralized versus decentralized, direct shipment, pull or push strategies, third party logistics.

  • Information: Integrate systems and processes through the supply chain to share valuable information, including demand signals, forecasts, inventory and transportation.

  • Inventory management: Quantity and location of inventory including raw materials, work-in-process and finished goods.

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Scm activities functions

SCM Activities/Functions

  • The purpose of SCM is to improve trust and collaboration among supply chain partners, thus improving inventory visibility and improving inventory velocity

  • SCM activities can be grouped into strategic, tactical, and operational level of activities

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The bullwhip effect

The Bullwhip Effect

  • An observed phenomenon in forecast-driven distribution channels

  • Because forecast errors are a given, companies often carry "safety stock"

  • Moving up the supply chain from end-consumer to raw materials supplier, each supply chain participant has greater observed variation in demand and thus greater need for safety stock

  • The effect is that variations are amplified the farther you get from the end-consumer

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Supply chain management

The bullwhip effect is a phenomenon in which the variability

in the size and timing of orders increase at each stage up

the supply chain, from customer to supplier


The bullwhip effect continued

The Bullwhip Effect (continued)

  • One way to eliminate the bullwhip effect is to give all participants in the supply chain access to consumer-demand information from the retailer.

  • Each organization can thus plan its inventory or manufacturing based on true demand and not on the observed demand from the next organization up in the supply chain.

    • An interorganizational information system is necessary to share such data.

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Stabilizing the bullwhip effect a demand driven supply chain

Stabilizing the Bullwhip Effect:A Demand-Driven Supply Chain

  • Individual Wal-Mart stores transmit POS data from the cash register back to corporate headquarters several times a day

  • This demand information is used to queue shipments from the Wal-Mart distribution center to the store and from the supplier to the Wal-Mart distribution center

  • The result is near-perfect visibility of customer demand and inventory movement throughout the supply chain

  • A demand-driven supply chain which reacts to actual customer orders. In manufacturing, this concept is called Kanban (カンバン看板)

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Supply chain management

B2B One Section of the Supply Chain


Supplier relationship management srm

Supplier Relationship Management (SRM)

  • SRM is a business process for managing all contacts between an organizational and its suppliers.

  • SRM applications support threebasic processes: source, purchase, and settle.

  • SRM examines inventory, determines that items are required, and automatically creates the order via its connection to the supplier’s CRM

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Supply chain management

SRM Process


Definition of key terms inventory

Definition of Key TermsInventory

  • Inventory consists of a list of goods and materials held available in stock

  • Manufacturing organizations usually divide their "goods for sale" inventory into:

    • Materials and components (or Raw materials) scheduled for use in making a product

    • Materials and components that have begun their transformation to finished goods (or Work in Process)

    • Finished goods - goods ready for sale to customers

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