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Chapter 13 Acids and Bases: The Molecules Responsible for Sour and Bitter PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 13 Acids and Bases: The Molecules Responsible for Sour and Bitter. Sourness in foods is caused by acids, molecules that release protons. The chemical opposite, bases, are all around us. Introduction. Acids do dissolve metals, but not with the speed alluded to in movies or television.

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Chapter 13 Acids and Bases: The Molecules Responsible for Sour and Bitter

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Chapter 13 acids and bases the molecules responsible for sour and bitter

Chapter 13

Acids and Bases: The Molecules Responsible for Sour and Bitter


Introduction

Sourness in foods is caused by acids, molecules that release protons.

The chemical opposite, bases, are all around us.

Introduction


Properties of acids

Acids do dissolve metals, but not with the speed alluded to in movies or television.

Properties of Acids


Properties continued

Properties (continued)

  • Acids have the ability to react with bases to form water and a salt through neutralization reactions.

  • Acids turn litmus paper red.

    • Bases turn litmus paper blue.

  • Acids are considered to be dangerous materials.

    • Dissolve clothing, burn skin, damage gastrointestinal tract, kill


Properties of bases

Slippery feel

Bitter taste

Ability to react with acids to form water and a salt in neutralization reactions

Bases turn litmus paper blue.

Properties of Bases


Properties continued1

Properties (continued)

  • Bases are found in many cleaning products.

  • Burn skin and damage gastrointestinal tract on contact


Molecular definitions

Molecular Definitions

  • Arrhenius

    • Acids produce hydrogen ions (H+) in solution.

    • Bases produce hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution.

    • But Arrhenius’ definitions do not apply in all cases.

      • What about ammonia?


Definition continued

Definition (continued)

  • Brønsted-Lowry

    • Broader definition

    • Works in solutions that do not contain water

    • Focuses on the transfer of protons (H+ ions)

    • Both B-L equations here, the overall ones with HCl and then NH3 as reactants

    • In the Bronsted-Lowry definition, acids are proton donors and bases are proton acceptors.


Strong and weak

Strong and Weak

  • Acids that completely dissociate, like HCl, are strong acids.


Chapter 13 acids and bases the molecules responsible for sour and bitter

  • Acids in an aqueous environment, that in large part remain undissociated, are weak acids. A double arrow indicates that the dissolution does not go to completion.


In the same manner bases are considered either strong or weak

In the same manner, bases are considered either strong or weak.


H 3 o concentration

H3O+ Concentration

  • The acidity of a solution is normally specified by the concentration of H3O+ in moles per liter of solution, M

    • Strong acids: acid concentration equals concentration of H3O+

    • Weak acids: acid concentration is greater than concentration of H3O+

  • Pure water has a H3O+ concentration of 1 x 10-7.


The ph scale

The pH Scale

Pure water with H3O+ concentration of 1 x 10-7 has a pH of 7.

  • H3O+ concentration greater than that of pure water is termed acidic.

    • pH values less than 7

  • H3O+ concentration less than that of pure water is termed basic.

    • pH values greater than 7


For every change of 1 unit on the ph scale h 3 o changes by a factor of 10

For every change of 1 unit on the pH scale, [H3O+ ] changes by a factor of 10


Common acids citric

Naturally occurring citric and other acids in acidic foods offer spoilage resistance.

Common Acids: Citric


Lactic acid

Fermentation with lactic- acid-forming bacteria helps preserve low acid foods like cucumbers and cabbage.

This technique is called pickling.

Lactic Acid


Acetic acid

Acetic Acid

  • Vinegar is a solution of acetic acid in water.

  • Vinegar is from the French vin aigre, meaning sour wine. Oxygen will convert ethanol in wine to acetic acid.


Salicylic acid

Salicylic Acid

  • Salicylic acid is a precursor to acetylsalicylic acid, aspirin, the most widely used of all drugs.


Chapter 13 acids and bases the molecules responsible for sour and bitter

Wine

  • All wines contain 0.60 to 0.80% acid content by volume.

    • From grapes and from fermentation

  • The balance of these acids determines the quality of the wine.


Common bases

Common Bases

  • Bases have a bitter taste.

    • Evolutionary adaptation that warns against (often poisonous) alkaloids?

  • Active ingredient in antacids

    • These are substances that dissociate in water to form a metal ion and a base.


Common bases continued

Common Bases (continued)

  • Sodium bicarbonate

    • Taken directly or as Alka-Seltzer

  • Calcium carbonate

    • Active ingredient in Tums

  • Magnesium hydroxide

    • Milk of Magnesia – laxative effect

    • In combination with Al ions (Mylanta): constipating effect to balance


Chapter 13 acids and bases the molecules responsible for sour and bitter

  • Ammonia and sodium hydroxide

    • Household cleaning products


Baking

Baking

  • Baking powder is used to produce carbon dioxide gas pockets in dough, making the baked product lighter and fluffier.

    • sodium bicarbonate

    • sodium aluminum sulfate

    • calcium acid phosphate

  • Acidic salts combine with the basic salts making carbon dioxide and water.

    • Warm carbon dioxide gas expands during baking.


Yeast produces co 2 and ethanol for a similar effect with breads

Yeast produces CO2 and ethanol for a similar effect with breads.


Acid rain fossil fuel combustion

Acid Rain: Fossil Fuel Combustion

  • SO2 and NO2 formed during fossil fuel combustion combine with atmospheric water to form acid rain.

  • Unpolluted rain is slightly acidic due to atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  • Most acidic rainfall occurs in the northeastern U.S.


Acid rain the effects

Acid Rain: The Effects

  • The environment into which acid rain falls determines its fate.

  • In some cases naturally occurring geography can serve to neutralize the acid.

  • Rapid acidification occurs when neutralization is not possible.


Chapter 13 acids and bases the molecules responsible for sour and bitter

  • Lakes and Streams

    • Approx. 2000 lakes and streams in the eastern U.S. have elevated pH.

    • Some aquatic species cannot survive.

    • U.S. emissions have contaminated Canadian lakes.

  • Building Materials

    • Acids dissolve stone, marble, paint

    • Rusting of steel is accelerated

  • Forests and Reduced Visibility

    • Trees cannot grow and fend off disease.

    • Sulfate aerosols account for 50% of visibility problems in the eastern U.S.


Clean air act amendments

Clean Air Act Amendments

  • Cut SO2 emissions to half of 1980 levels by 2010

    • Use low-sulfur coal, rremove sulfur before burning

    • Use flue gas scrubbers

    • Conservation and efficiency of customers

  • SO2 emission allowances

    • Can be traded among utilities but congress reduces number of allowances as per regulations


Chapter 13 acids and bases the molecules responsible for sour and bitter

  • Conjugate acid and base pairs

  • An acid reacts with a base to form the conjugate base of the acid and the conjugate acid of the base

  • - the two substances only differ by a hydrogen ion, H+

  • Examples


Chapter 13 acids and bases the molecules responsible for sour and bitter

  • ion product for water (Kw) - the product of hydronium and hydroxide ion concentrations in pure water

  • Kw = Ka[H2O]

  • Kw = [H3O+] [OH-]

  • = [1.0x10-7 M][1.0x10-7 M]

  • = 1.0x10-14 M (at 25 °C)

  • Kw is the same value for every aqueous solution

  • acidic solution [H3O+] > 10-7 M[OH-] < 10-7 M

  • neutral solution [H3O+] = 10-7 M[OH-] = 10-7 M

  • basic solution [H3O+] < 10-7 M[OH-] > 10-7 M


Chapter 13 acids and bases the molecules responsible for sour and bitter

pH

pH = - log [H3O+]

[H3O+] = 10-pH

Acidic solutions (pH 0-6 or < 7) [H3O+] > 1x10-7 M

Neutral solutions (pH = 7)[H3O+] = 1x10-7 M

Basic solutions (pH 8-14 or > 7)[H3O+] < 1x10-7 M


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