Surrealism Circa 1921 – 1940. " Beautiful as the chance encounter of a sewing machine and an umbrella on a dissection table.“ - Lautréamont Les chants de Maldoror.
"Beautiful as the chance encounter of a sewing machine and an umbrella
on a dissection table.“
Les chants de Maldoror
The Surrealist Revolution (left)Photomontage for LaRévolution Surréaliste, nº 12, 1929by René Magritte (Belgian, 1898-1967), Enquête sur l'amour’ (Inquiry on Love)(bottom right) Surrealist group, Paris, 1930, L-R: Tristan Tzara, Paul Eluard, André Breton, Hans Arp, Salvador Dali, Yves Tanguy, Max Ernst, René Crevel, Man Ray
(left) The World in the Time of the Surrealists, Brussels, 1929"We are determined to make a Revolution." "We have joined the word surrealism to the word revolution solely to show the disinterested, detached and even entirely desperate character of this revolution." - André Breton
(right) Easter Island, Polynesia, ceremonial dance paddle (rapa) from André Breton’s collection of Oceanic art. It represents a highly stylized male figure with Janus-face head and phallic finial showing retracted foreskin.
Precursors to Surrealism: 19th Century Romanticism and Symbolism (left) Arnold Bocklin, The Isle of the Dead, 1880, oil on canvas, Symbolism (right) Francisco Goya, Saturn c. 1821-1823, Oil on plaster remounted on canvas, Romanticism
Precursor to Surrealism: Giorgio de Chirico, (Greek-Italian,1888-1978) (left) The Melancholy and Mystery of a Street, 1914, oil on canvas, 34 x 28”Metaphysical School(right) The Great Metaphysician, 1917, oil on canvas, 41 x 27”influence on De Chirico of Arnold Bocklin (center)
New York Times 2007: “The Museo Carlo Bilotti is Rome’s newest cultural gem, with extraordinary art housed in a fastidiously restored 16th-century marble palazzo smack in the middle of Villa Borghese.” Bilotti, an Italian-American perfume (Old Spice) executive from Palm Beach, Fla., left his collection, including 22 de Chirico paintings, to the city of Rome.
“Naturalist” or “Hand Painted Dream” SurrealismRené Magritte (Belgian, 1898-1967) The Treachery of Images, 1928-29, oil on canvas, 23 x 31”, LACMA, Deconstruction
John Baldessari at 2007 exhibition he
designed: Treachery of Images: René
Magritte and Contemporary Art. LACMA
(left) Charles Ray (American, b. 1953), Fall '91, 1992, mixed media, 96 in. H(right) Robert Gober (American, b.1954), Untitled, 1989-92, mixed media
"The eye exists in its savage state. The marvels of the earth ... have as their sole witness the wild eye that traces all its colors back to the rainbow."
- André Breton
Surrealist magazine, earth ... have as their sole witness the wild eye that traces all its colors back to the rainbow." La Révolution Surréaliste [The Surrealist Revolution, 12 issues,1924-1929] was modeled on the conservative scientific magazine, La Nature. In a mock scientific manner, specimens of automatic writing and records of dreams were illustrated with photographs, mostly by the “machine-poet” Man Ray (American,1890-1976). The review succeeded in shocking everyone.
Man Ray earth ... have as their sole witness the wild eye that traces all its colors back to the rainbow." , Minotaur, 1933, for the Surrealist magazine, Minotaur. Collapses human and animal into a single (border) “impossible” category: bull-human, like the Greek mythical monster.
Man Ray earth ... have as their sole witness the wild eye that traces all its colors back to the rainbow." , Minotaur, 1933
erasing categories of sexuality
Brassai, Nudes, 1933
Brancusi, Torso, 1924 & 1926
“The frame announces the camera’s ability to find and isolate what we could call the world’s constant writing of erotic symbols, its ceaseless automatism.”
Surrealist defamiliarization becomes “Formless (Informe)” of the subconscious
and the dream
AUTOMATONS and mannequins: earth ... have as their sole witness the wild eye that traces all its colors back to the rainbow." Hans Bellmer (Polish, 1902-75), La Poupée (Doll), 1935-49, hand colored gelatin silver print(right) Bellmer, La Poupée, 1935-36: (center) La Poupée), 1934; gelatin silver prints“Dolls” are made of wood, metal, papier-mâché and dressed with wigs, clothing, etc. or not
The art object is not the sculpture; it is the photograph.
SURREALIST PHOTOGRAPHY: MANNIQUINS AND “DISTORTIONS” earth ... have as their sole witness the wild eye that traces all its colors back to the rainbow." Eugène Atget (French 1857-1927), Boulevard de Strasbourg, Corsets, 1912, albumen silver printAndré Kertész (Hungarian, 1894-1985), Distortion #4, 1933, gelatin silver print
Luis Bunuel & Salvador Dali earth ... have as their sole witness the wild eye that traces all its colors back to the rainbow." , frames from Un Chien Andalou (France) An Andalusian Dog, Surrealist film, 1928. Eyes, insects, metamorphosis, erotics, madness of the dream & subconscious
METAMOPHOSIS OF FORM earth ... have as their sole witness the wild eye that traces all its colors back to the rainbow." Salvador Dali (Spanish, 1904-89) interpreted photograph, Paranoic Face, 1931 from Le Surrealisme au Service de la Revolution, no.3. “voluntary hallucination" = the "critical paranoic method"(right) Dali, Apparition of a face and a Fruit Dish, 1930
I think the time is rapidly coming when it will be possible…to systematize confusion thanks to a paranoiac and active process of thought, and so assist in discrediting completely the world of reality.”
"Repugnance is the sentry standing right near the door to those things
that we desire most.” - Salvador Dali
“The transcription of reveries.” Hand-painted dream photographs. Dali’s morphological aesthetics of the soft and hard and the search for form: “un-form” (Informe)
Cape Creus, Catalonia
ANXIOUS VISIONS for Anxious Times – social contexts of Surrealist imagery(left) SalvadorDali, Soft Construction with Boiled Beans: Premonitions of Civil War, 1936, oil on canvas, 39 x 39” (Spanish Civil War), Surrealism (right) compare FranciscoGoya, 1821 (Napoleonic wars in Spain), Romanticism
AUTOMATISM Surrealist imagery: Surrealist “exquisite corpse” drawings (left) by Yves Tanguy, Man Ray, Max Morise, Joan Miró, c. 1926.(right) “exquisite corpse” by Victor Brauner, André Breton, Jacques Hérold and Yves Tanguy, 1935.
AUTOMATISM and abstract biomorphic Surrealism Surrealist imageryAndré Masson (French, 1896-1987) Quare de vulva exuxiste me (Why dids’t thou bring me forth from the womb?), 1923, pen & ink on paper(right) Battle of Fishes, 1926, sand, gesso, oil, pencil, and charcoal on canvas, 14 x 28,
Joan Miró Surrealist imagery (Spanish,1893-1983), Carnival of Harlequin, 1924-5, oil on canvas, 26 x 36” Response to Cubism: "I will break their guitar."
BIOMORPHISM + POPULAR CULTURE Surrealist imageryJoan Mirò, Painting, 1933, oil on canvas, 5’8” x 6’5” MoMA, NYC (right) source collage of clippings from equipment catalogues
DISJUNCTION / READYMADE /UNCANNY OBJECT Surrealist imagery(left) Joan Miró, Object, assemblage: stuffed parrot on wood perch, stuffed silk stocking with velvet garter and doll’s paper shoe suspended in hollow wood frame, derby hat, hanging cork ball, celluloid fish, and engraved map, 32 x 12 x 10,” 1936(right) Joseph Cornell (American, 1903-1972] ) Medici Boy, 1942-52. mixed media assemblage
(left) Exhibition of Surrealist Objects, Paris, 1936, mock-scientific display(right) Marcel Duchamp, Surrealist Exhibition / Installation, 16 Miles of String, Peggy Guggenheim Gallery, NYC, 1942 – the labyrinth of the Minotaur
SURREALISM . DIASPORIC INDIGENISM / “MAGIC REALISM” mock-scientific displayWilfredo Lam (Cuban, 1902-82), The Jungle, 1943, gouache on paper mounted on canvas, 7’10” x 7’6”, MoMA NYCSanterìa: blend of African and Catholic religious practices(left) Wilfredo Lam in his Havana studio, 1947
Imogen Cunningham, Frida
Kahlo in San Francisco, 1931
Aztec goddess Tlazolteotl in mock-scientific display
the act of giving birth to a man.
Kahlo, My Birth, 1932, painted after a miscarriage
coinciding with the death of the artist’s mother
“How I imagined I was born.” (a double death?)
Leonora Carrington mock-scientific display(British-born Mexican Surrealist Painter and Writer, born in 1917) Self-Portrait (The White Horse Inn), 1936-7, oil on canvas, 25 x 32”
Dorothea Tanning mock-scientific display (American, 1910 - ) (left) Ein klein nachtmusik "A little night music," 1946(right) Birthday, 1942, oil on canvas, 40.25 x 25.5 inches (center, below) with husband Max Ernst, Sedona, Arizona, 1948
Alberto Giacometti mock-scientific display(Swiss, 1901-66), Suspended Ball, 1930-31 (1965 reconstruction), plaster and metal, 24 x 14 x 13”(right) Constantin Brancusi, Torse (wood 1922; bronze 1926)
Sexual “nudes” undoing
categories of male female desire
1932 sketch indicates
Details of Giacometti’s mock-scientific displayThe Palace at 4 A.M.
END OF THE AGE OF EUROPE AND EMERGENCE OF NEW YORK SCHOOL mock-scientific display(left) Hitler occupies Paris, 1940Photograph of the artists exhibiting in the Artists in Exile show at the Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York, March, 1942. Left to right, first row: Matta, Ossip Zadkine, Yves Tanguy, Max Ernst, Marc Chagall, Fernand Léger; second row: André Breton, Piet Mondrian, André Masson, Amédée Ozenfant, Jacques Lipchitz, Pavel Tchelitchew, Kurt Seligmann, Eugene Berman. Photograph by George Platt Lynes
Nina Leen, photograph captioned “Irrasible Group of Advanced Artists,” printed in Life (15 January 1952), (top row) Willem de Kooning, Adoph Gottlieb, Ad Reinhardt, Hedda Stern; (middle): Richard Pousette-Dart, William Baziotes, Jackson Pollock, Clyfford Still, Robert Motherwell, Bradley Walker tomlin; (bottom): Theodoros Stamos, Jimmy Ernst, Barnett Newman, James Brooks, Mark Rothko
INFLUENCE OF SURREALISM ON ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM Advanced Artists,” printed in Life (15 January 1952), (top row) Willem de Kooning, Adoph Gottlieb, Ad Reinhardt, Hedda Stern; (middle): Richard Pousette-Dart, William Baziotes, Jackson Pollock, Clyfford Still, Robert Motherwell, Bradley Walker tomlin; (bottom): Theodoros Stamos, Jimmy Ernst, (left top) André Masson (French, 1896–1987. In U.S.1941–45)Pasiphaë, oil and tempera, 1943, and (left bottom) 1945, Pastel on paper, 27x 38“(right) Jackson Pollock (1912-56), Pasiphaë, oil, 1943
Automatism and psycho-analytic theory
AMERICAN INFLUENCES ON NEW YORK SCHOOL ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISTS(left) Jackson Pollock (American, 1912-56),Going West, 1934-35, 15 x 20”, oil on bd; (right) Thomas Hart Benton (American Regionalist, 1889-1975) The Ballad of the Jealous Lover of Lone Green Valley, oil on masonite, 42 x 53”, U of Kansas
INFLUENCE OF MEXICAN MODERNISM on Abstract Expressionism EXPRESSIONISTS(left) Pollock, Flame, oil on canvas, 1936; (center) David Siqueiros (Mexican, 1896-1974), Echo of a Scream, 1937; (RIGHT) José Orozco (Mexican 1883-1949), The Epic of American Civilization: Modern Migration of the Spirit, fresco mural: 14th panel, Dartmouth College, 1932-34
Photographs of Pollock painting by Hans Namuth, 1950 = EXPRESSIONISTSAction Painting"My opinion is that new needs need new techniques. And the modern artists have found new ways and new means of making their statements." - Jackson Pollock
Willem de Kooning, EXPRESSIONISTSPink Angels, c. 1945, oil and charcoal on canvasPeter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus, 1618
Mark Rothko Painting”(Russian-American 1903 -70) (left) Encantation, 1944, mixed media/paper, 24 x 30” (right) Multiform 2 1948, oil on canvas, one of a small group of untitled works collectively known as 'Multiforms' that Rothko painted during the years 1947-49 immediately preceding the mature works for which he is best known.
Mark Rothko, Painting”Untitled, 1949, oil on canvas, 6’9” x 5’6”"The people who weep before my pictures are having the same religious experience I had when I painted them."
Rothko, Painting”White and Greens in Blue, 1957, Oil on canvas, 8’4” x 6’10” “It is a widely accepted notion among painters that it does not matter what one paints as long as it is well painted. This is the essence of academicism. There is no such thing as a good painting about nothing.”
The Rothko Chapel Painting”, Houston, Texas, 1965-66, opened in 1971“I wanted to paint both the finite and the infinite.” “I was always looking for something more.” Mark Rothko
Isamu Noguchi Painting” (Japanese-American 1904-88) (left) Kouros. 1944-45; (center) Constantin Brancusi, Bird in Space, 1925; (right) Herodiade, stage set designed by Isamu Noguchi for Martha Graham, 1944.
(left top) Buson Painting”, by Isamu Noguchi (1904-1988). Japan, Kita Kamakura, 1952. Unglazed Karatsu stoneware, 8-1/4 x 6-1/2 x 3-3/8”. (right) Great Rock of Inner Seeking1974, basalt, H:127 7/8” with stone commemorating poet Buson near Osaka Japan; (below left) Noguchi Garden Museum, Long Island City with traditional garden in Japan.
Louise Bourgeois Painting” (French-American, b.1911), (left to right) Quarantania, 1947-53, painted wood on wood base, 62” high; photoportrait of Bourgeois by Robert Mapplethorpe, 1982; Cumul I, 1968, marble, 22 x 48”;
David Smith Painting”(American, 1906-65), Bombing Civilian Populations, 1939, cast bronze,10 x 10 7/8”; (right) Cover Exhibition Catalogue: "Medals for Dishonor by David Smith,“1940
David Smith Painting”,Hudson River Landscape,1951, Welded painted steel and stainless steel, 50 x 75 x 17”, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, photograph by David Smith
(left to right) Painting” Julio Gonzalez (Spanish, 1876-1942) Monsieur Cactus I, 1939, bronze, 26” high; Picasso, Head of a Woman, 1929-30; Vladimir Tatlin, Corner Relief, 1915; Smith, Blackburn: Song of an Irish Blacksmith, 1949-50, steel and broze, 45 x 49 x 24”; Smith making a sculpture, 1951 (below left)
(left to right) David Smith, Painting”Tanktotem IX, 1960, steel, painted, 90 x 33 x 24”; Picasso, Bull’s Head, bicycle seat and handlebars, 1943; Smith, Cubi XVII, 1963, stainless steel,108 x 64 x 38”