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Energy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Energy. I. Metabolic Pathways. Energy = the ability to do work Metabolic processes use chemical E (ATP) E released when chemical bonds break (e - pulled apart) Each step is regulated by enzymes. I. Photosynthesis and Nature. Sunlight provides energy to produce carbohydrates.

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i metabolic pathways
I. Metabolic Pathways
  • Energy = the ability to do work
  • Metabolic processes use chemical E (ATP)
  • E released when chemical bonds break (e- pulled apart)
  • Each step is regulated by

enzymes

i photosynthesis and nature
I. Photosynthesis and Nature
  • Sunlight provides energy to produce carbohydrates.
  • Equation:

Light

6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2

Chlorophyll

  • Autotrophs (make their own food)
    • Algae, plants, some bacteria
    • Ultimate source of food for life
    • Photoautotrophs…..

use light energy

4. Chemoautotrophs……

use chemical energy

  • Photosynthesis produced the oxygen in the atmosphere of our planet.
ii structures of photosynthesis
II. Structures of Photosynthesis
  • Chloroplasts
    • = the organelle of Photosynthesis
    • Stroma –

fluid-filled inner space

3. Thylakoids-

internal membranes within stroma

4. Organized into stacks called grana.

slide5
Chlorophylls and other pigments are embedded within thylakoid membranes.
  • Pigments absorb solar energy.
iii photosynthetic pigments
III. Photosynthetic Pigments
  • Major pigments are

chlorophyll a and b.

    • Both absorb violet, blue, and red wavelengths best.
    • Most green is reflected back.

B. Carotinoids = yellow-orange pigments ; absorb light in violet, blue, and green regions

C. In fall, chlorophyll breaks down and the yellow-orange pigments show through.

D. Accessory pigments capture light when sun changes positions.

iv cell respiration
IV. Cell Respiration
  • Breaks down glucose and builds up ATP.
  • C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP Energy
  • Begins in cytoplasm with Glycolysis (stage 1)
    • Turns glucose (glucose is split) into pyruvic acid
    • Produces 2ATP
slide8
Fermentation
    • Processes that keep glycolysis going without oxygen (anaerobic)
    • Lactic Acid fermentation
      • Converts pyruvic acid into lactic acid
      • Occurs in muscle cells when oxygen not available; causes pain
      • Used by bacteria that make yogurt, cheese, pickles
slide9
Alcoholic Fermentation
    • Converts pyruvic acid into ethyl alcohol and CO2
    • Occurs in bacteria and yeasts
    • Used to make beer, wine, and bread
slide10
Aerobic Respiration
    • Need Oxygen (Oxidative Respitation- Stage 2)
    • Energy from Pyruvic Acid is transferred to ATP
      • In the Krebs Cycle
      • In the Electron Transport Chain
    • Breakdown of glucose yields 36 ATP
    • If O2 is not available to the cell, fermentation occurs.
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