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IV. Cyclic Codes. Theorem. Let s(X) be the syndrome of a received polynomial r(X) Then the remainder s (1) (X) resulting from dividing Xs(X) by the generator polynomial g(X) is the syndrome of r (1) (X), which represents a cyclic shift of r(X). Proof Xr(X) = r n-1 (X n +1)+r (1) (X)

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IV. Cyclic Codes

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Iv cyclic codes

IV. Cyclic Codes


Theorem

Theorem

Let s(X) be the syndrome of a received polynomial r(X) Then the remainder s(1)(X) resulting from dividing Xs(X) by the generator polynomial g(X) is the syndrome of r(1)(X), which represents a cyclic shift of r(X)

Proof

Xr(X) = rn-1(Xn+1)+r(1)(X)

r(1)(X)=rn-1(Xn+1)+Xr(X)

Therefore

c(X)g(X)+ρ(X) = rn-1g(X)h(X)+X[a(X)g(X)+s(X)]

where ρ(X) is the remainder of dividing r(1)(X) by g(X)

Therefore

Xs(X)=[c(X)+rn-1h(X)+Xa(X)]g(X)+ ρ(X)

ρ(X)=s(1)(X) is the remainder of dividing Xs(X) by g(X)


Computing s 1 x

Computing s(1)(X)

Gate

+

+

s1

s2

s0

Gate

Assume r=(0 0 1 0 1 1 0)

The syndrome for

r=(0 0 0 1 0 1 1)

is s(1)=(1 0 0)


Decoding of cyclic codes

Decoding of Cyclic Codes

Cyclic codes may be decoded similar to linear block codes through the following three steps

  • Syndrome Computation

  • Association of the syndrome with an error pattern (i.e., syndrome table)

  • Error Correction

Alternatively the cyclic property may be used to simplify the decoding process

  • Meggitt’s Algorithm

  • Simplified Syndrome table that stores all correctable error patterns of degree n-1

  • Serial Decoding


Meggitt s algorithm

s’(X) corresponds to a correctable error pattern of degree n-1

Meggitt’s Algorithm

r(X)=r0+r1X+r2X2+…+rn-1Xn-1 (received polynomial)

r’(X)=r(X),

Nof Shifts = 0

Cyclic Shifting

r’(X)=r’(1)(X)

Compute Syndrome s’(X) for r’(X)

Nof Shifts = n

Yes

No

s’(X)=0

No

Yes

No

Yes

e’(X)=0

r’(X) is the corrected codeword

e’(X)=Xn-1

An error is detected

Nof Shifts = Nof Shifts +1,

r’(X)=r’(X)+e’(X)


Computing the syndrome for r x

If the syndrome of m(X) is s(X)

The syndrome ρ(X) for r’(X)=m(X)+Xn-1 could be computed as follows:

m(X)+Xn-1 = a(X)g(X)+ρ(X)

ρ(X) = a(X)g(X)+ m(X)+Xn-1

The syndrome ρ(1)(X) for the cyclic shift r’(1)(X) of r’(X)=m(X)+Xn-1 could be computed as follows:

Xρ(X)= Xa(X)g(X)+ Xm(X)+Xn

Xρ(X)= Xa(X)g(X)+ X[c(X)g(X)+s(X)]+h(X)g(X)+1

Xρ(X)= [Xa(X)+Xc(X)+h(X)]g(X)+Xs(X)+1

Therefore ρ(1)(X)=s(1)(X)+1 where s(1)(X) is the remainder of dividing Xs(X) by g(X)

Computing the Syndrome for r’(X)


Cyclic code decoder

Cyclic Code Decoder

Gate

Corrected Vector

Received Vector

ri

+

Gate

Buffer Register

r(X)

Feedback Connection

Gate

Gate

+

Syndrome Register

Error Pattern Detection Circuit

ei

Gate

Syndrome Modification


Meggitt algorithm steps

Meggitt Algorithm Steps

Step 1: The syndrome is formed by shifting the entire received vector into the syndrome register.

Step 2: The syndrome is read into the detector and is tested for the stored error patterns. The detector is a combinatorial logic circuit that is designed in such a way that its output is 1 if and only if the syndrome in the syndrome register corresponds to a correctable error pattern with an error at the highest order position Xn-1.

Step 3: The first received symbol is read out of the buffer. At the same time the syndrome register is shifted once. If the first received symbol is detected to be an erroneous symbol, it is then corrected by the output of the detector. The output of the detector is also fed back to the syndrome register to modify the syndrome (i.e., remove the error effect from the syndrome). This operation results in a new syndrome which corresponds to the altered received vector shifted one place to the right.

Step 4: The new syndrome formed in step 3 is used to detect whether the second received symbol (now in the rightmost position) is an erroneous symbol. The detector repeats steps 2 and 3. The second received symbol is corrected in exactly the same manner as the first received symbol was corrected.

Step 5: The decoder decodes the received vector symbol by symbol in the manner outlined until the entire received vector is read out of the buffer register


Example decoding of 7 4 cyclic code

Example Decoding of (7,4) Cyclic Code

Syndrome Table

g(X)=1+X+X3

  • e6(X) is the only error pattern with an error at location X6

  • (1 0 1) is the only syndrome that needs to be stored in the

  • decoder circuit


Example g x 1 x x 3 decoder circuit

Example g(X)=1+X+X3:Decoder Circuit

Gate

Corrected Vector

Received Vector

Buffer Register

ri

+

Gate

r(X)

Gate

Gate

+

+

Gate


Example g x 1 x x 3 decoder steps e x x 2

Example g(X)=1+X+X3:Decoder Steps, e(X)=X2

Initial

+

0

1st Shift

+

0

2nd Shift

+

0

3rd Shift

+

0

4th Shift

+

1

5th Shift

+

0

6th Shift

+

0

7th Shift

+

0


Meggitt s algorithm characteristics

Meggitt’s Algorithm Characteristics

  • The decoder could be made simpler by storing only the syndromes for error patterns with degree n-1

  • The received symbols are serially detected. This introduces a delay in decoding the received vector

Meggitt’s Decoder for cyclic codes improves complexity on the expense of increased processing delay

Question: Why can’t we adopt the same concept of serial decoding to non-cyclic codes?


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