Urbanization and Effects on Children. Elizabeth Davila & Caroline Steer. Urbanization What Does it Mean? Why Should We Care?. Increased Urbanization. A CAUSE: Increased Population in large areas such as New York City. An EFFECT: Debilitating Health Effects on Children.
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-Inhalation of flaking lead-based paint often used to paint road divisions and traffic signs in NYC(Blaise, 2006).
-lead pipes contaminating food and water(Hooker 2006).
-Negative neurological effects
*All during childhood development.
Often Found in older apartment buildings which includes subsidized housing, schools in poorer communities, and deep in the center of urban areas.
Old and worn water pipes in which lead and rust residue can contaminate bathing and drinking water in poor areas.
Prüss et. al, 2002.
Asthma: “a chronic inflammation of the bronchial tubes (airways) that causes swelling and narrowing (constriction) of the airways. The result is difficulty breathing.” (www.medicinenet.com).
Can be triggered by many environmental factors.
-Air Pollution (example: sulfur dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels)
-Emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide from high traffic areas (Lin et. al, 2000)
-Poor quality housing which can contribute to the spread of allergens from second hand smoke and roaches.
“Researchers have found that children in urban New York City are hospitalized at a rate higher than that of other Americans being hospitalized for asthma” (Corburn et. al, 2006).
Can contribute to increasing rates of delinquency, developmental problems, and school violence.
(Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 24, 1996)
(Environmental research, Vol. 88, issue 2, pp. 73-81, Feb. 2002)
**Urbanization is not necessarily a direct form of discrimination against the poor and people of color, but often leads to certain affects which tend to mainly affect these groups.**