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Sailboat Racing – Just the basics!. Presented by John Alonso. Agenda . Keys to Racing Basic Sail Theory Sail Controls Basic Rules and Signals Starting Beating Upwind; passing, meeting Rounding Marks Reaching and Running Finishing Summary. Keys to Racing . Priorities:

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sailboat racing just the basics
Sailboat Racing – Just the basics!

Presented by John Alonso

agenda
Agenda
  • Keys to Racing
  • Basic Sail Theory
  • Sail Controls
  • Basic Rules and Signals
  • Starting
  • Beating Upwind; passing, meeting
  • Rounding Marks
  • Reaching and Running
  • Finishing
  • Summary
keys to racing
Keys to Racing
  • Priorities:
  • When beating-stay on the wind; Learn to "feel" the wind.
  • Smooth Transitions (tacking and jibing)
  • Sail Close to Other Boats; Without Getting Nervous
  • Get a good start; clear air and speed.
  • Good Mark Roundings; large gains and losses are made here.
basic sail theory
Basic Sail Theory
  • Sails, contrary to popular belief, are not merely "pushed" along by the wind.
  • The theory of sails; lift and flow
    • Lift is the force which makes the boat move
    • Flow of air over the sails generates that lift. It also generates drag, which slows the boat down.
basic sail theory6
Basic Sail Theory
  • The sail is the foil driving the boat. In order to maximize the speed of the boat in different conditions, you must change the depth of the foil.
basic sail theory7
Basic Sail Theory
  • Proper trim and attack angle are key.
sail controls
Sail Controls
  • Wind Indicators
    • Windex
    • Telltales
      • Jib telltales are the most sensitive, accurate
sail controls9
Sail Controls
  • Outhaul - controls the size of the draft in the bottom 40% of the mainsail.
  • Cunningham - controls the location of the draft. When the cunningham is pulled on, the draft in the sail moves forward. Sighting straight up above the boom, the top batten of the sail should be parallel with the boom.
  • Boom Vang - controls the shape of the mainsail leech. When the vang is pulled on, the leech gets tighter, and when released, the leech gets loose, and "twists" off to leeward. The top batten, as mentioned above, should be approximately parallel with the boom.
sail controls10
Sail Controls
  • Jib Leads (“blocks” or “cars”) – control the "slot" between the jib and main. This slot should be kept fairly open. The two blocks for the sheets can often be moved forward and back.
sail controls11
Sail Controls
  • Main Sheet and Jib Sheets - These controls, the most interactive, control the angle at which the wind hits the sail, with respect to the boom.
  • if the angle of attack is too large (the sail is pulled in too tight), the sail will "stall“. (Note: It will look the same, but it won\'t be working as it should) You can use the telltales on the sail to judge the flow
basic rules and signals16

wind

Basic Rules and Signals
  • Tack (and windward/leeward) is defined by which side the boom is on

port

starboard

leeward

windward

starting
Starting

Example of three starts; Racers, Cruisers, and Capri’s

starting random leg course
Starting –Random Leg Course
  • Used for distance races
    • Uses fixed marks / navigational aids
    • Courses described in Sailing Instructions
    • First leg will be to windward, typically
starting23
Starting
  • Form a Plan and Execute it - Large gains and losses are made at the start. When your boat comes off the line, you want to be in clear air, have good speed, be on the preferred side of the line and course, and be on the right tack.
starting24

wind

mark

Starting
  • An inside boat is not entitled to room at a start mark

RC

Barging!

starting25
Starting
  • Watch the signal boat
  • Check your time
  • Gauge your speed
  • Pick a lane
  • Get Clear Air and Have Speed at the Start
beating upwind
Beating Upwind
  • Keep the Boat Flat!
    • The most important rule for going upwind is to keep the boat as flat as possible.
beating upwind27
Beating Upwind
  • The main emphasis should be on speed.
  • In very light winds there is not enough energy to keep the sails open, so you must use heel the boat slightly to leeward to hold the sails open.
  • When a puff hits your boat you must ease the main sail. It is the crew\'s job is to keep the mainsail full. It is the skipper’s job to keep the boat flat
  • For the jib, the goal is to make the outside tale flow straight back and the inside tale "lift" occasionally
beating upwind28
Beating Upwind
  • Avoid blanketing and backwinding
    • 3 boat lengths is a good rule
beating upwind29
Beating Upwind
  • Avoid a potential blanketing and/or backwinding situation; use lee bow technique
beating upwind30
Beating Upwind
  • Lifts and Headers
    • Header –
      • a shift which forces you to bear off to keep the sails full. When this happens, you will not be heading as close to the windward mark.
      • If the header is severe enough, you should consider tacking, since those on the other tack are experiencing the same shift, but to them it\'s a lift.
    • Lift
      • A shift which allows your boat to head up toward the windward mark.
beating upwind31
Beating Upwind
  • Headers
  • Lifts
meeting situations

wind

Meeting Situations
  • A boat on starboard tack has right of way over a port tack boat

Starboard!

passing situations

wind

Passing Situations
  • A boat passing to windward must keep clear of a leeward boat on the same tack. The leeward boat may luff to prevent the pass.

Head up!

passing situations34

wind

Passing Situations
  • A boat passing to leeward on the same tack must not sail above her proper course

Proper course!

rounding marks
Rounding Marks
  • Windward Mark –
    • The goal for this rounding is to come into the mark with a full head of steam, and accelerate evenly as you bear off for the next leg.
    • plan to come in about 1/2 to 1 boat length above the layline, to be able to bear off as you approach. As you bear off for the next leg, begin to let the sails out evenly to keep the telltales flowing, but don\'t let them luff.
rounding marks36

wind

mark

Rounding Marks
  • At a windward mark, a boat on starboard tack has right of way over a port tack boat

Starboard!

rounding marks37

wind

mark

Rounding Marks
  • When rounding a windward mark, an inside boat on the same tack must be given room if overlapped within three boat lengths of the mark

Room!

rounding marks38
Rounding Marks
  • Reach Mark
    • The reach mark is also called the jibe mark
    • The objective is to jibe nicely and smoothly and set up for the leeward mark
    • Set your pole if you have one
reaching and running
Reaching and Running
  • These legs are often the fastest legs because of the increased speed of the boat.
  • Clear air is important. If someone is driving over you on top of your wind, try your best to get away without making too much of a course change
rounding marks40
Rounding Marks
  • Leeward
    • If you have a pole up, plan ahead to take it down.
    • Plan to come in about 1/2 to 1 boat length above the layline, to be able to harden up as round
rounding marks41

wind

mark

Rounding Marks
  • When rounding a leeward mark, an inside boat (if overlapped within three boat lengths of the mark) must always be given room

Room!

finishing
Finishing
  • As you come around the leeward mark or otherwise approach the finish line look to see which side is closest to you.
  • If you\'re confident you have the speed, once you\'re about 1 boat length from the finish, “punch it up” or “shoot" the boat straight into the wind. This cuts down the distance you have to travel to finish. MAKE SURE YOU DON’T STALL!!
summary
Summary
  • Before the race
    • Get to boat early
    • Check: gear, clothing, food, water, sunscreen
    • Launch to arrive at the start line at least ½ hour before start
summary44
Summary
  • Before the start
    • Find the weather mark
    • Sail up the first beat to determine the favored tack
    • Sail downwind to determine favored jibe
    • Find the line and the favored end
    • Know the course; check the board!
    • Get on the clock
    • Stay close to committee boat
    • Sync with prep flag
summary45
Summary
  • Start
    • Get close to favored end but away from pack
    • Make room to maneuver
    • Give at least 30 secs to build speed
    • Adjust all controls for max. speed
    • Hit the line at full speed!
summary46
Summary
  • 1st beat
    • Look up the course
    • Look for shifts
    • Look for pressure
    • Look at where fleet is going and try to get between fleet and advantaged side
    • Know where you are on the course and where the mark is
    • Tack on the headers
summary47
Summary
  • Weather mark
    • Approach from middle; don’t get to layline too early
    • Big gains possible in last few shifts!
    • Look for holes in parade and/or boats overstood
    • Adjust for reach; cunningham off, vang off 50%, outhaul off 50%
    • Maintain speed in rounding; smooth round using sail and boat trim, minimum rudder
    • Head for clear air
summary48
Summary
  • Reach
    • Maintain clear air (don’t let boats drive over!)
    • Ride the waves
    • Concentrate on boat speed
    • Set course and adjust with sail trim, minimum rudder
summary49
Summary
  • Reach (jibe) mark
    • Maintain speed in rounding
    • Have pole prepared, if applicable
    • Jibe main
    • Get to course quickly
    • Set Pole
summary50
Summary
  • Run
    • Stay on course; steer with sail trim, minimum rudder
    • Maintain clear air
    • Work to stay on the waves
    • Ride pressure down to mark
summary51
Summary
  • Leeward mark
    • Avoid laylines until last minute
    • Determine favored tack for next beat
    • Take pole down if applicable
    • Adjust controls for beat
      • Outhaul in
      • Jib car adjustment
      • Cunningham down
      • Vang on
summary52
Summary
  • Beat to Finish
    • Find a lane on favored tack
    • Tack on the headers
    • Sail to 1st layline (do not sail past!)
    • Determine favored end
    • Sail to favored end
    • Punch it up at the line
    • Listen for the horn and HAVE A BEER!
ad