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Human Health 2 Establishing Thresholds. Establishing Water Quality Thresholds (Q1). Epi Studies. Toxicology Studies. Analytical Methods. Exposure Assessment. Process. Persistence (Fate and Transport). Uncertainty. Occurrence Data (inc. degradates). Temporal. Risk Communication.

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Human health 2 establishing thresholds
Human Health 2Establishing Thresholds


Establishing water quality thresholds q1
Establishing Water Quality Thresholds (Q1)

Epi Studies

Toxicology Studies

Analytical Methods

Exposure Assessment

Process

Persistence (Fate and Transport)

Uncertainty

Occurrence Data (inc. degradates)

Temporal

Risk Communication

THRESHOLD

(Health Reference Level)


Thresholds depend upon exposure q2
Thresholds Depend Upon Exposure (Q2)

  • Indirect Potable Reuse - Groundwater

  • IPR - Surface Water Augmentation

  • Surface Water Discharge

    • Downstream Drinking Water

    • Bioaccumulation

  • Non-potable Reuse

  • Ocean Desalination

b


What process for establishing water quality thresholds
What Process For Establishing Water Quality Thresholds

DLR

HRL (PHG)

Set DLR

DLR<PHG

DLR<PHG

Set PHG

CommunicateRIsk

CommunicateRIsk

b


Thresholds depend upon exposure q21
Thresholds Depend Upon Exposure (Q2)

  • Indirect Potable Reuse - Groundwater

  • IPR - Surface Water Augmentation

  • Surface Water Discharge

    • Downstream Drinking Water

    • Bioaccumulation

  • Non-potable Reuse

  • Ocean Desalination

b


Temporal issues q2 q3
Temporal Issues (Q2&Q3)

  • Acute Exposure vs. Chronic Exposure – compound specific

  • May have acute and chronic criteria

  • Acute criteria will drive monitoring frequency

b


Ongoing projects doing this already
Ongoing Projects Doing This Already

  • WRF/WRF Toxicological Relevance (05-005)

  • WRF Research Needs (Cotruvo/Bull)

  • WRF IEUA Health Based (Nellor)

  • Intertox Tox Relevance (WRF)

  • NRC Panel


There are known knowns and unknown knowns
There are Known Knowns and Unknown Knowns

Uncertainty & Conservatism = f(lack of information)


Uncertainty drives threshold conservatism q4
Uncertainty Drives Threshold Conservatism (Q4)

  • Standard EPA Uncertainty Factors Can be Applied to Balance Lack of Data

b


Risk communication
Risk Communication

  • Uncertainty is Reality

  • Other Routes of Exposure?

  • Open Discussion with the Public

  • Work to Fix Problem

  • …try to avoid these issues through intermediate monitoring


What if you exceed hrl
What if You Exceed HRL?

  • Retest, split samples, document outlier or repeated event.

  • Running averages to document risk

    • acute versus chronic


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