Abnormal psychology
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Unit 13. Module 47 Mr. Ng. Abnormal Psychology. Psychological Disorders. Psychological Disorders : persistently harmful thoughts, feelings, and actions. Behavior is seen as deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional. Deviant : Different from most people

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Abnormal Psychology

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Abnormal psychology

Unit 13

Module 47

Mr. Ng

Abnormal Psychology


Psychological disorders

Psychological Disorders

Psychological Disorders: persistently harmful thoughts, feelings, and actions.

Behavior is seen as deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional.

Deviant: Different from most people

To be a disorder deviant behavior must cause the person distress.


Psychological disorders1

Psychological Disorders

Drilling holes to let “evil spirits” escape!

  • Ancient ways to get rid of psychological disorders:

    • Exorcism

    • Confinement & Beatings

    • Burnings

    • Castration

    • Other brutal “therapies”


Psychological disorders2

Psychological Disorders

Medical Model: In 1800s, psychological disorders were classified as sicknesses and needed to be treated.

Mental Illness (Psychopathy) can be diagnosed based on their symptoms and cured through therapy.


Psychological disorders3

Psychological Disorders

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Inattention – distractibility, forgetfulness, disorganization.

Hyperactivity – fidgeting, restlessness, excessive talking.

Impulsivity – difficulty taking turns, interrupting, blurting out.


Psychological disorders4

Psychological Disorders

ADHD can cause social, academic, and work place problems.

Can be treated with drugs, most commonly with Ritalin.

Is it over diagnosed? Is long term use of drugs harmful?


Defining abnormal behavior

Defining Abnormal Behavior

  • Currently diagnosed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM 5):

  • Used for classifying psychological disorders.

  • Published by American Psychological Association


Defining abnormal behavior1

Defining Abnormal Behavior

Textbook is outdated!

No longer use the 5 axes, but are covered in DSM 5.

DSM-5 replaced DSM IV-TR’s old multi-axis system.


Defining abnormal behavior2

Defining Abnormal Behavior

  • DSM 5 lists the various disorders (18 areas) including:

    • Personality disorders

    • Schizophrenia spectrum

    • Bipolar disorders

    • Anxiety disorders

    • Feeding and Eating disorders

    • Many more…


Defining abnormal behavior3

Defining Abnormal Behavior

Critics of DSM 5 say that it labels people and once we do that, we view that person differently.

Better to study root causes instead of studying a category.

Labels can cause bias – student labeled “gifted” or “slow” can effect how teachers and staff treat them.


Defining abnormal behavior4

Defining Abnormal Behavior

Rosenhan Experiment:

David Rosenhan (1929 – 2012) conducted a study titled “On being sane in insane places”.

Used healthy people to gain admission to 12 psychiatric hospitals. (Including himself)

Conducted this in 12 different psychiatric hospitals across country


Defining abnormal behavior5

Defining Abnormal Behavior

All faked hallucinations.

All were admitted and diagnosed with psychiatric disorders.

All were told to get released on their own.

All acted normal after admission and told staff they felt fine.


Defining abnormal behavior6

Defining Abnormal Behavior

All were forced to admit to having a mental illness and to take drugs as a condition of their release.

Spent an average of 19 days in ‘care’.

7 out of 8 were diagnosed with schizophrenia.

Hospital staff were adamant that they were mentally ill.


Defining abnormal behavior7

Defining Abnormal Behavior

Part 2

An angry hospital challenged Rosenhan to send pseudo patients and see if they could detect them.

Out of 193 new patients, the staff identified 41 as pseudo patients.

Rosenhan sent no one.


Defining abnormal behavior8

Defining Abnormal Behavior

Conclusions

Rosenhan concluded “it is clear that we cannot distinguish the sane from the insane in psychiatric hospitals”.

Criticized reliability of psychiatric diagnosis.

Experiment led to a movement to reform mental institutions.


Psychological disorders5

Psychological Disorders

450 million people worldwide suffer from psychological disorders.

1 in 7 Americans suffered a mental disorder. (1 in 6 in England)

Poverty is a predictor of mental disorder.

Those below the poverty line are twice as likely to suffer.


Serial killers

Serial Killers

Serial Killers: A person who has murdered three or more people over a period of more than a month, with down time between murders.

Motives are usually based on psychological gratification.

Not the same as mass murder or spree killing.


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