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KenyaRwandaEthiopia DjiboutiBurundi Eritrea South AfricaSomaliaSudan TanzaniaMalawiUganda BotswanaAngolaZambia MozambiqueZimbabwe. Section 1 Kenya. Kenya. Symbolic of Africa The Lion King Game preserves – savanna National parks – protected wildlife roam

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Kenya rwanda ethiopia djibouti burundi eritrea south africa somalia sudan

  • KenyaRwandaEthiopia

  • DjiboutiBurundi Eritrea

  • South AfricaSomaliaSudan

  • TanzaniaMalawiUganda

  • BotswanaAngolaZambia

  • MozambiqueZimbabwe


Kenya rwanda ethiopia djibouti burundi eritrea south africa somalia sudan

Section 1

Kenya


Kenya

Kenya

  • Symbolic of Africa

  • The Lion King

  • Game preserves – savanna

  • National parks – protected wildlife roam

  • The great Masai warriors

  • The Great Rift Valley


Kenya physical characteristics

Kenya – physical characteristics

  • Located on the East coast of Africa

  • Equator runs through the center

  • Lowlands vs Highlands

    • SW highlands- most people live

    • Central plateau rises to the west

    • North – droughts common

  • Fertile highlands – get enough rain

  • Great Rift Valley/ Lake Victoria


Kenya rwanda ethiopia djibouti burundi eritrea south africa somalia sudan

Understanding the Past


Kenya rwanda ethiopia djibouti burundi eritrea south africa somalia sudan

  • Masai vs Kikuyu – early tribes – held land

  • Portugal, Germany claimed

  • British East Africa Company


British rule

British Rule

  • Build a railroad from the coast (Mombasa) to Nairobi in center and to Uganda

  • Kenya-Uganda Railroad

  • Problems around Tsavo

    • Lions were killing workers

    • Movie – Great Lion Hunter

    • Lions – Field Museum in Chicago


British rule1

British Rule


Under british rule

Under British Rule

  • White settlers took the land from native tribes under British rule

  • 1950s - Mau Mau Rebellion

    • British crushed the rebellion

  • 1963 – independence from Britain

    • Jomo Kenyatta became president (Kikuyu)

    • Kikuyu regained some farm lands


Kenya rwanda ethiopia djibouti burundi eritrea south africa somalia sudan

Economic Activities


Kenya under kenyatta

Kenya under Kenyatta

  • Harambee (pulling together) grass-roots movement of people putting together

  • Solid economic growth –

    • farmers raise cash crops coffee and tea

    • Few minerals – depended on agriculture

  • Cash crop of flowers used to produce pyrethrum (pesticide)

  • Not growing crops to feed themselves - import

  • People suffer from malnutrition


Kenya rwanda ethiopia djibouti burundi eritrea south africa somalia sudan

Government and Citizenship


After independence

After Independence

  • Stable government

  • 1980s population grew fast

  • Not enough food or jobs

  • Social and political unrest


Politics

Politics

  • Accused President Daniel arap Moi of corruption

    • He refused multiparty elections, jailed critics

    • Supporters killed world famous scientist – Richard Leakey

  • 1992 - Agreed to hold elections

    • Western nations withheld loans

    • Moi won elections in 1992, 1997

    • Defeated in 2002 – stepped aside peacefully


Kenya today

Kenya Today

  • Written a new constitution abolishes the Prime Minister – August 2010

  • President – Mwai Kibaki since 2002

  • Parliament

  • Trying to create an uncorrupt government

  • Ethnic violence

  • Not enough food


Search for peace

Search for Peace

  • Ethnic violence

  • Not enough food

  • Concerns about corruption in gov’t


Section 2

Section 2

Other Countries of East Africa


Other countries of east africa

Other Countries of East Africa

  • Key locations - Horn of Africa

  • Strategic value

    • Valuable locations for military action

    • On the Indian Ocean

    • Shipping lanes Red Sea, Gulf of Aden

    • Close to oil supplies in Middle East

    • Midpoint between SE Asia and Europe


Djibouti

Djibouti

  • Earns income - strategic ports

  • France pays large fees - military bases

  • France has worked to maintain peace

    • Civil War 1991

    • Constitution followed

    • Election in 1999

    • Peace in 2000

    • Working to repair agriculture, education, infrastructure


Ethiopia

Ethiopia

  • Ancient nation -3500 BC

  • High fertile plains

    • temperate climate

  • Troubles

    • Drought in 1984, 1986 – famine

    • Conflict with Somalia

    • Civil War in Eritrea (coastal province)

    • Government overthrown

    • Lost the province of Eritrea – now landlocked

    • Torn by ethnic division


Eritrea

Eritrea

  • After independence

  • economy suffered

  • Government worked to create modern country

  • Capital of Asmara – rebuilt modern capital

  • Modern steel plant, modern housing

  • Borrowed little from foreign powers

  • Subsistence farming/herding – basis of economy

  • No democracy but government is working


Somalia

Somalia

  • Since its independence in 1960

    • Full-scale civil war

    • Severe drought-1990s

    • Border war with Ethiopia

    • No effective national government

    • Source of many pirates

  • UN sent relief

  • Constant fighting/no supplies get to the people

  • UN frustrated – withdrew aid


The sudan

The Sudan

  • Largest nation in all of Africa

  • Climate much like Sahel

  • Northern area mostly ergs– shifting sand dunes

  • People divided

    • North – Muslim Arabs

    • South - Different ethnic tribes (animism)(Christianity)

  • Southern areas called the Sudd – swampy area

  • Continuous war since 1956

  • Darfur – genocide -millions have been killed


Kenya rwanda ethiopia djibouti burundi eritrea south africa somalia sudan

Landlocked Countries


Uganda

Uganda

  • West of Kenya

    • High plateau – fertile land – cotton, coffee

    • Prospered under Great Britain as a colony

  • 1962 Independence - civil war

    • North – people - military power struggled against

    • South – people - economic power

    • Military struggle ended with dictatorship

  • Idi Amin – ruthless dictator in power in the 1970-1979

    • 300,000 people ‘disappeared’ - violent struggles

  • Mid 1990s - rebuilding

    • Democratic election in 2001


Rwanda and burundi

Rwanda and Burundi

  • Ethnocracy –

    • government in which one ethnic group rules over others


Rwanda

Rwanda

  • 80% Hutu

  • 20% Tutsi (Watusi)

  • Hutu in power for 35 years (after 1959)

    • Overthrew Tutsi gov’t -killed 100,000 Tutsi

  • 1994 – Civil War

    • 2 million Rwandans driven away

    • 100,000 Tutsi killed

    • Currently share power -free elections

    • Current president – 2000 -


Burundi

Burundi

  • 14% Tutsi – in power

    • Control/use army to hold power

  • Mid 1993 – held its first free election

    • Elected a Hutu president

    • Coup overthrew him

    • Many Hutu and Tutsi killed

    • Violence continues

  • Agreed to share power in 2004

  • Currently President Nkurunziza – Hutu -2005

  • Current Vice president – Hutu - 2010


Tanzania

Tanzania

  • Ancient man inhabited

  • Ancient slave traders – Zanzibar

  • Germans controlled

  • After WW I – British control

  • Independence - 1961


Tanzania1

Tanzania

  • Land has great potential wealth

    • Fertile soils

    • Minerals – iron ore, coal, diamonds

  • Varied terrain

    • humid coastal plain

    • cool highlands

    • Lake Victoria and Mount Kilimanjaro

    • dry central plains

  • Poor development = 2nd poorest country


Tanzania2

Tanzania

  • Socialism

    • Experiment from 1961-1985

    • Villagization –

      • Rural people forced into towns

      • Worked on collective farms

      • Failure

  • Moved back to free enterprise

    • Farmers - back to farm land - had been idle

    • Sold corn and cotton

    • Paid a fair price for crops


Kenya rwanda ethiopia djibouti burundi eritrea south africa somalia sudan

South Africa

Section 3


Geography of s africa

Geography of S Africa

  • Mostly high, dry plateau

  • Surrounded by escarpment to a coastal plain

  • Plateau has some areas with good rain

  • Grow corn, wheat and variety of fruits


South africa

South Africa

  • Country is divided by race

  • 76% population is black

  • 13% white

  • 9% mixed race

  • 3% Asian

  • White minority ruled over a century


Movement into african lands

Movement into African Lands

  • 1600s settled by Dutch, Germans, French

    • Over time – groups became Africaners or Boers

    • Own language – African – combination of Dutch, French, German

    • White, wealthy

    • Pushed natives inland, claiming land by treaty or force


British takeover

British Takeover

  • British settlers arrived

    • pushed Africaners inland

    • kept pushing to assert British control

    • Boer War – 3 years – 1899-1902


Boer war

Boer War

Africaners accepted British rule

  • Result - British colony

    • Africaners/British settlers

    • Black Africans

      • driven to reserves

      • put to work on white-owned plantations or factories


Independence

Independence

  • S Africa became independent in 1961

  • Blacks - move out of reserves

  • Blacks - began to rebel

  • Many were jailed

    • Leader - Nelson Mandela


1950 1980

1950-1980

  • Fastest growing economy in world

    • Abundant coal = inexpensive energy

    • Money to invest

    • Excellent connection with Britain and Europe provided technology, skills, knowledge

    • Blacks provided large pool of cheap labor


Minority rule

Minority Rule

  • Whites controlled government

  • Whites controlled 2/3 land and best farmland

  • Whites controlled gold mines

  • Whites controlled diamond mines

  • Whites controlled mines of 70 other minerals

  • Whites controlled thriving industries

  • Whites controlled the wealth


Government control

Government control

  • White government afraid of blacks

    • To control them the gov’t created arbitrary regions called homelands – 75% people forced to live on 13% land

    • Everyone has to stay in their assigned homeland unless they were given a pass to live somewhere else

    • Became know as Apartheid


Apartheid

Apartheid

  • Means apartness

  • Black Africans were segregated from the whites

  • Separate public facilities – schools

  • Facilities were never as good

  • Any rebels were jailed


International backlash

International Backlash

  • 1986 Europe, US placed economic sanctionson South Africa

    • End apartheid

    • Prohibited Americans from investing

    • Banned imports

    • Pressure from within through protests

    • Banned from the Olympics

    • Cost S Africa $2 billion


Change

Change

F.W. de Klerk – new prime minister in 1989

  • Released prominent activist Nelson Mandela who had been in prison – 27 years

  • Leader of African National Congress – negotiated with white government

  • 1990-1991 – apartheid laws were repealed

  • Transition of power to Black majority

  • 1994 – free elections – Mandela 1st president


  • Mandela deklerk

    Mandela/deKlerk


    South africa today

    South Africa Today

    • 1996 – new constitution

    • Guaranteed equality in housing, health care, water, food, and education

    • Still some economic and social problems

    • Model government has kept peace

      • Mandela’s party still in power

      • President Jacob Zuma – May 2009


    Kenya rwanda ethiopia djibouti burundi eritrea south africa somalia sudan

    Other Countries of Southern Africa


    Section 4 other countries of southern africa

    Section 4 Other Countries of Southern Africa

    • All these countries are affected by the wealth and power of South Africa

    • Enclaves – country that is completely surrounded by a larger country

      • Lesotho

      • Swaziland


    Malawi

    Malawi

    • Landlocked

    • Located on the western shore of

      Lake Nyasa in the Great Rift Valley

    • Migrant workers under labor contracts to South Africa

    • Fertile lands, good water supply

    • Crowded nation

    • Resources are stretched to meet needs


    Botswana

    Botswana

    • Landlocked

    • Less dependent on S Africa – wealthier

    • Arid country, sparsely populated

    • Raises millions of beef cattle – feeds itself

    • Mineral wealth – diamonds, copper, coal

    • Stable government


    Angola

    Angola

    • Western coast of Africa

    • Former Portuguese colony

      • fought a tough war for its independence

      • Portugal pulled out,

      • Portuguese left taking their wealth and chaos ensued

    • “White flight” – departure of trained white administrators and technicians


    Angola1

    Angola

    • Reaction to problems of colonialism

      • Government committed to communism

      • Outraged the democratic neighbor - SA

    • Rebel group known as UNITA waged war

    • Stress of civil war hurt economy

    • 100,000 killed, disease and malnutrition

    • 1 in 4 children died before the age of 4

    • Couldn’t feed itself


    Angola2

    Angola

    • South Africa ended military presence

    • 1992 - first free election

    • Pope just visited in 2010

      • Mass to over a million people

    • Hopeful it will soon feed itself

    • Trying to keep a stable government


    Mozambique east coast

    Mozambique – East Coast

    • Portuguese colony –similar to Angola

    • Civil wars forced refugees into cities and camps

    • Civil war ended -Rebels and government worked things out

    • Outlook is promising

      • Huge labor force,

      • Excellent port

      • Reserves of coal,

      • Hydroelectric plant on Zambezi River

    • Still world’s poorest nation


    Namibia

    Namibia

    • West coast – South of Angola

    • Almost a colony of South Africa

    • Had its own version of apartheid

    • Now has a stable government

    • Archeologists finding sunken ship offshore

    • Brad and Angelina


    Zambia

    Zambia

    • Independence in 1964

      • President Kenneth Kaunda

      • Counted on copper reserves for money to buy food

      • Let agricultural economy decline

    • 1970s and 1980s

      • Copper market fell – economy fell

      • Kaunda defeated/ new leader tried to improve agriculture and business


    Zambia1

    Zambia

    • Could not get enough money

      to feed its people

    • Kauna tried the structural readjustment program – caused riots

    • Elected new president in 1991 who returned to the program

    • Slowly progressed

    • Economic recovery is far off


    Zimbabwe

    Zimbabwe

    British colony of Rhodesia

    • landlocked

    • 1965 independence

    • White minority government

    • Britain and UN demanded respect of the rights of the black majority

    • Years of conflict – some whites stayed

    • 1979 first free election – Robert Mugabe


    Zimbabwe under mugabe

    Zimbabwe under Mugabe

    • White farmers stayed – corn, tobacco, cotton

    • Land Redistribution – give land to poor

      • Gov’t set slow schedule

      • Allowed time to build infrastructure

      • 2000 Mugabe seized farms – violence

      • Jailed opposition

      • White farmers fled

      • Economy suffered – 80% unemployment

      • Mugabe defeated in 2008 – refused to leave – finally allowed Tsvangivai to take office in Feb. 2009


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