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The 7 Characteristics of Life #7. Order/Organization (Life, Energy, Entropy) R Regulation R Growth and Development (via DNA) R Energy utilization R Responds to stimuli R Reproduce (according to a DNA plan) R E Evolve / Adapt (changes DNA) . The 7 Characteristics of Life #7.

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The 7 characteristics of life 7

The 7 Characteristics of Life #7

  • Order/Organization(Life, Energy, Entropy)R

  • Regulation R

  • Growth and Development (via DNA) R

  • Energy utilization R

  • Responds to stimuli R

  • Reproduce (according to a DNA plan) R

  • E Evolve / Adapt (changes DNA)


The 7 characteristics of life 71

The 7 Characteristics of Life #7

E Evolve/Adapt(via changes in DNA)

evolution of dance

End Chapter 1 Begin Chapter 13


Evolution

Evolution

  • Evolution: A change in the genetic make-up of a population. (A change in the gene pool)

  • Of the 7 characteristics of life, this one is unique in that it is a characteristic of populations.

  • Individuals are metabolic, homeostatic, respond, grow and develop, reproduce, are cellular, etc. but they DO NOT evolve.

    Populations evolve, individuals do not !!

    Evolution is a population phenomenon !!

    As is perhaps true for much of what you believe about evolution, if you believe that you can evolve, you must unlearn that and learn what is really going on


A gene pool evolution is a change in the genetic make up of a population

A Gene PoolEvolution is a change in the genetic make-up of a population


The 7 characteristics of life 7

A Gene PoolEvolution is a change in the genetic make-up of a populationA population has a gene pool; an individual has a genome.


Evolution1

Evolution

  • The idea of ideas…

  • A word about words…


Evolution biology s most important idea dobzhansky

Evolution: Biology’s Most Important Idea !Dobzhansky…

  • Development of ideas in general.

  • Development of the idea of evolution in particular.

  • Why? (study this idea in Billeter’s bio class)

    • Most important idea in biology…

    • researched, dissected, dissed, poked, kicked applauded, defamed, tested, screamed at, misinterpreted, debated, more than…

    • Illustrates relation between science and…

    • Illustrates that science is not divorced from the rest of our society but is rather, science is an integral part of our society.

  • It is the most powerful paradigm in guiding our understanding of life including human life.


Paradigms there are ideas and there are ideas the biggies are called paradigms

PARADIGMSThere are ideas and there are IDEAS. The biggies are called paradigms.

  • ATOMIC THEORY

  • CELL THEORY

  • PLATE TECTONICS

  • BIG BANG

  • E=mc2

  • 2nd LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

  • ETC.


Evolution2

Evolution

  • Biology’s most famous book: On the Origin of Species…

  • Why Darwin?

  • Why England?

  • Why 1859?

    • We’ll come back to this… but be thinking about:

      • WHY THIS GUY?

      • IN THIS PLACE?

      • AT THIS TIME?


Evolution where does this idea come from anyway

EvolutionWhere does this idea come from anyway?

  • Class Activity 1 (5 minutes):

    • Make a list of many different living things. (easy)

  • Group Activity 2 (5 minutes):

    • Consider your 21 things and all the other living things and formulate 4 of the most basic and fundamental questions you can think of to ask about all of Earth’s living things i.e. What do you think are the most fundamental questions of the science of biology? (hard)

      e.g. one thing I want to know about life and I think biologists ought to figure out is: how, who, why, what, when, where, what’s up with…


So what did aristotle think 384 322 bc

First to make (write down) a distinction between

Natural

Explanations

and

Supernatural

Explanations

So, what did Aristotle think? 384-322 BC


So what did aristotle ask 384 322 bc

So what did Aristotle ask? 384-322 BC

1. What is the nature of the “soul” or “vital force” of life? What’s responsible for making certain blobs of matter and energy “BE ALIVE”?


So what did aristotle ask 384 322 bc1

So what did Aristotle ask? 384-322 BC

2. Is being alive the same thing for all the life we see around us? Or are there different types of “being alive?” Dolphin, mushroom, sponge, bug…


So what did aristotle ask 384 322 bc2

So what did Aristotle ask? 384-322 BC

3. What’s required to maintain life? i.o.w. What is needed to keep something alive?


So what did aristotle ask 384 322 bc3

So what did Aristotle ask? 384-322 BC

4. Why are there so many kinds of life?

(the biodiversity question)


So what did aristotle ask 384 322 bc4

So what did Aristotle ask? 384-322 BC

5. Why are similar organisms similar? How do you account for natural groupings?


So what did aristotle ask 384 322 bc5

So what did Aristotle ask? 384-322 BC

6. Why do like produce like? Why do offspring always resemble their parents?


Like always begets like

Like always begets like!


The age of enlightenment

The Age of Enlightenment

  • Emerge from Dark Ages 476 A.D. - c.1450 A.D.

  • Renaissance approx. 1300s -1500s

  • Age of Enlightenment 16, 1700’s


The age of enlightenment1

The Age of Enlightenment

  • Scientists exhibiting the skepticism and empiricism that characterize modern science.

  • Questioning established ideas.


Observers of the living world were asking questions too

Observers of the living world were asking questions too.

  • The questions of Aristotle are revived.

  • Historically:

    • Ages of Exploration and Colonial Expansion.

    • New and bewildering specimens flood the museums of Europe.

    • New and bewildering religions and cultures are being “discovered.”

    • Industrial Revolution.

      • More on this later…


Big questions of biology 1700 s version

Big Questions of Biology(1700’s version)

  • Why is life so diverse? How do you explain the thousands if not millions of species?

  • What do fossils mean?

  • Why are certain groups of organisms similar to each other?

  • Why are others different?

  • How, if at all, are extant species related to the fossils they resemble?

  • How, if at all, are similar organisms in different places related?


Evolution3

Evolution?

  • Many of these questions COULD BE answered quite easily IF organisms could change (evolve).

  • And most of them COULD NOT be answered well if organisms couldn’t change.

  • But most 18th C biologists did not believe that organisms evolved. They believed instead…


Evolution4

Evolution?

1. As Aristotle had said about 2000 years earlier, ladder of life…

2. According to the Genesis account in the Judeo/Christian Old Testament…

Divine creation a.k.a Special creation.


Challenges to absolute literalism arise from astronomy and geology before biology

Challenges to absolute literalism arise from astronomy and geology before biology.

Lyell

1797-1875

19C

Copernicus

16C

Hutton

1726-1797

18C

Galileo

1564-1642

17C


So how does a theory of evolution arise out of this 18 th century thinking

So how does a theory of evolution arise out of this 18th century thinking?

James Hutton (1726-1797)

Theory of Uniformitarianism

or

Uniformity

or

Gradualism

UniformitarianismvsCatastrophism


3 implications of gradualism

3 Implications of Gradualism

1. Earth is very old.

  • Bishop Ussher (1654) dates the creation of the world at 4004 BC. Sir James Lightfoot improves that calculation to 9 AM Oct 3, 4004 BC. The 6000 year old Earth idea.

  • Hutton suggests Earth’s age should be measured in at least millions of years.

  • Modern estimates from radiometric dating and other lines of research age Earth at 4.5 billion.


Three implications of gradualism

Three Implications of Gradualism

2. Slow gradual change of the geological

world is “normal.”


Three implications of gradualism1

Three Implications of Gradualism

3. There may be other interpretations of the Judeo/Christian Bible than an absolute literal interpretation.

This one really is an implication; Hutton never wrote it.

So religious interpretation and empirical interpretation are in conflict. And remain so.


What do these geology ideas have to do with biology

What do these geology ideas have to do with biology???

It’s pretty obvious that organisms “match” their environments.


The 7 characteristics of life 7

Had they lived at the same time (they didn’t), Darwin may well have asked Hutton:

‘Hey Jim, if your geologic world is changing gradually and continuously, is it not possible, as a matter fact, is it not likely, that the biological world is changing too?


The 7 characteristics of life 7

‘Hey Jim, if your geologic world is changing gradually and continuously, is it not possible, as a matter fact, likely, that the biological world is changing too?

Well, perhaps. But ya gotta have a MECHANISM !!!

If ya wanna say somethin’s happenin’ ya gotta explain HOW !!


Jean baptiste pierre antoine de monet chevalier de lamarck 1744 1829 takes a shot at answering how

Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet Chevalier de Lamarck(1744-1829)takes a shot at answering “How?”

Evolution Through the Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics

Acquired Characteristics = non-Genetic Characteristics


Jean baptiste pierre antoine de monet chevalier de lamarck 1744 1829

Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet Chevalier de Lamarck(1744-1829)

Evolution Through the Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics


Jean baptiste pierre antoine de monet chevalier de lamarck 1744 18291

Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet Chevalier de Lamarck(1744-1829)

Evolution Through the Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics

The real poop on giraffes: Click HERE for a great video on giraffes.

Nope !


Lamarck s idea does not survive so we turn to chuck darwin 1809 1882

Lamarck’s idea does not survive So…we turn to Chuck Darwin1809-1882


Charles darwin

Charles Darwin

1809-1882

Voyage of HMS Beagle 1831-1836

“On the Origin of Species” 1859 JB


Fig 13 02

1837

Darwin begins analyzing his

specimens and writing his

notebooks on the origin

of species.

Fig. 13-02

1809

Lamarck

publishes

his theory

of evolution.

1844

Darwin writes his essay

on the origin of species.

1830

Lyell publishes

Principles of Geology.

1865

Mendel publishes

papers on genetics.

1800

1870

1809

Charles Darwin

is born.

1859

Darwin publishes

The Origin of Species.

1858

Wallace sends an

account of his

theory to Darwin.

1831–36

Darwin travels

around the world

on the HMS Beagle.

Green sea turtle in the

Galápagos Islands


Evolution5

Evolution

  • Biology’s most famous book: On the Origin of Species…

  • So… we ask again?

    • Why Darwin?

    • Why England?

    • Why 1859?

      So, let’s address these questions… What ‘s up with

      THIS GUY in THIS PLACE at THIS TIME ???


Science is always affected by the larger society in which it operates

Science is always affected by the larger society in which it operates.

(Heck, almost everything is affected by the larger society in which it operates !!)

Age of Exploration (mid 1400’s - mid 1500’s)

Age of Colonial Expansion (early 1500’s – late 1700’s +)

the voyage of the Beagle was part of the Colonial Era

Industrial Revolution (1730’s – early 1900’s)

How do these large scale social/historical events affect Darwin and the development of evolutionary theory?


Science is affected by the larger society in which it operates

Science is affected by the larger society in which it operates.


The growth of natural history museums lavishly illustrated coffee table books

-- the growth of natural history museums -- lavishly illustrated coffee-table books


The industrial revolution

The Industrial Revolution


The industrial reolvution

The Industrial Reolvution


The voyage of the h m s beagle 1831 1836

The Voyage of the H.M.S. Beagle1831-1836

Fig. 17-6c, p.265


Lyell principles of geology

Lyell: Principles of Geology


The voyage of the h m s beagle

The Voyage of the H.M.S. Beagle


The voyage of the h m s beagle1

The Voyage of the H.M.S. Beagle


Convergent evolution rhea sa emu aust ostrich africa

Convergent EvolutionRhea, SA; Emu, Aust; Ostrich, Africa

Fig. 17-3a, p.262


The 7 characteristics of life 7

A phylogeny of living and extinct flightless birds based on DNA sequences suggests that although moas and kiwis both live in New Zealand, they are not each other's closest relatives. Kiwis are more closely related to the emus and cassowaries of Australia and New Guinea.


Convergent evolution

Convergent Evolution

Fig. 17-3a, p.262


Darwin on the galapagos islands divergent evolution and co evolution

Darwin on the Galapagos Islands(divergent evolution and co-evolution)

Fig. 17-8a, p.260


Darwin on the galapagos islands

Darwin on the Galapagos Islands


Darwin on the galapagos islands prickly pear cactus opuntia

Darwin on the Galapagos IslandsPrickly Pear Cactus, Opuntia


Darwin on the galapagos islands prickly pear cactus on the galapagos

Darwin on the Galapagos IslandsPrickly Pear Cactus on the Galapagos


The 7 characteristics of life 7

Darwin on the Galapagos IslandsWhy the tall cactuses with “bark”?Why the saddle-back tortoise?(co-evolution)


The 7 characteristics of life 7

?


Darwin on the galapagos islands giant tortoises of the galapagos

Darwin on the Galapagos IslandsGiant Tortoises of the Galapagos


The 7 characteristics of life 7

Darwin on the Galapagos Islands“Darwin’s Finches” (divergent evolutionvs convergent evolution vs co-evolution/parallel evolution)


Darwin on the galapagos islands darwin s finches there are distinct differences

Darwin on the Galapagos Islands“Darwin’s Finches” There are distinct differences.


The 7 characteristics of life 7

Rose-breasted grosbeak, Pheucticusludovicianus,N.A., & CanadaGeospizamagnirostris, G. fortis, G. parvula, Certhideaolivacea,Galapagos

Peter and Rosemary Grant,

Princeton U.


Galapagos finches

Galapagos Finches


Darwin on the galapagos islands adaptive radiation radial evolution divergent evolution

Darwin on the Galapagos Islandsadaptive radiation, radial evolution, divergent evolution


Darwin on the galapagos islands convergent vs divergent evolution

Darwin on the Galapagos IslandsConvergent vs. Divergent Evolution


Darwin 1859 makes two real clear statements about evolution

Darwin, 1859, makes two real clear statements about evolution…

1. It happens !

and…

2. It happens by natural selection.

TEXTBOOK: a) descent from common ancestor

a.k.a “descent with modification”

b) natural selection

PROF: It’s as easy as ABC:

A. Variation … with

B. Consequences … passed down by

C. Heredity


The 7 characteristics of life 7

Darwin begins his discussion of Evolution by Natural Selection with a discussion of “Evolution” by Artificial Selection (=Breeding)


The 7 characteristics of life 7

Darwin begins his discussion of Evolution by Natural Selection with a discussion of “Evolution” by Artificial Selection (Breeding)


Evolution of the domestic dog

Evolution of the domestic dog

  • Arose c. 40,000 ybp in eastern Asia.

  • Most modern breeds arose in past 200-300 yrs Europe.

  • Most were produced by European breeders in the 19th C.


The 7 characteristics of life 7

Darwin begins his discussion of Evolution by Natural Selection with a discussion of “Evolution” by Artificial Selection (Breeding)

  • How do you make a dachshund?


Artificial selection breeding

Artificial Selection = Breeding


Corn zea mays and teosente

Corn (Zea mays)and Teosente


The 7 characteristics of life 7

Forced selection in Drosophila,the common fruit fly, this was done by breeding, in the natural world this would be an example of “disruptive selection.”


Artificial selection vs natural selection

Artificial Selection vs. Natural Selection

  • Artificial Selection has two parts:

    1. Random Genetic Variation which is acted upon by…

    2. Artificial Selection

  • Natural Selection has two parts:

    1. Random Genetic Variation which is acted upon by…

    2. Natural Selection

    VARIATION + CONSEQUENCE + HEREDITY


The 7 characteristics of life 7

Darwin’s idea is not very complicated. It is based on 4 (empirical) observations which lead to 3 conclusions.

  • Observations

    • Natural populations reproduce exponentially

    • Yet, they stay rather constant in number

    • Organisms exhibit natural variation in structure, physiology, behavior, “traits.”

    • Some variations are heritable.

  • Conclusions

    • Competition

    • Natural Selection

    • Evolution (by natural selection).


Set it up like this

Set it up like this!

Observation 1

Observation 2

+

Observation 3

Conclusion 1

+

Observation 4

Conclusion 2

+

Conclusion 3


The 7 characteristics of life 7

Darwin’s idea is not very complicated. It is based on 4 (empirical) observations which lead to 3 conclusions.

Observation #1

Natural populations reproduce exponentially. Natural populations of organisms have the capacity to produce way more offspring than then the environment could possibly support if ALL the offspring survived.

Blue crab ~ 1 mill codfish ~23 millocean sunfish ~ 54 mill


The 7 characteristics of life 7

Darwin’s idea is not very complicated. It is based on 4 (empirical) observations which lead to 3 conclusions.

Observation #1

Natural populations reproduce exponentially. Natural populations of organisms have the capacity to produce many more offspring than then the environment could possibly support if ALL the offspring survived.


The 7 characteristics of life 7

Darwin’s idea is not very complicated. It is based on 4 (empirical) observations which lead to 3 conclusions.

Observation #2

Yet, natural populations stay rather constant over time.


Observations 1 2 deal with population growth zpg

Observations #1 & #2 deal with population growthZPG

  • Rev. Thomas Malthus 1798


The 7 characteristics of life 7

Darwin’s idea is not very complicated. It is based on 4 (empirical) observations which lead to 3 conclusions.

Observations #1 & #2 deal with population growth

Natural populations reproduce exponentially. Natural populations of organisms have the capacity to produce many more offspring than then the environment can support if ALL the offspring survived(so they all don’t survive) !


The 7 characteristics of life 7

Darwin’s idea is not very complicated. It is based on 4 (empirical) observations which lead to 3 conclusions.

Observation #1 & #2

Natural populations reproduce exponentially. Natural populations of organisms have the capacity to produce many more offspring than then the environment could possibly support if ALL the offspring survived. So they don’t (all survive) ! Many die before they reproduce.

Observation #2

Observation #1


The 7 characteristics of life 7

Darwin’s idea is not very complicated. It is based on 4 (empirical) observations which lead to 3 conclusions.

Observation #3

Natural populations exhibit variation in structure, function, behavior, etc.


The 7 characteristics of life 7

Darwin’s idea is not very complicated. It is based on 4 (empirical) observations which lead to 3 conclusions. (see p. 267)

Observation #4

Some of these variations are HERITABLE.

(They can be passed from generation to generation via reproduction. And some can’t!)


Darwin s idea is based on 4 observations that lead to 3 conclusions

Darwin’s idea is based on 4 observations that lead to 3 conclusions.

Observation #4

Some characteristics are heritable and will be passed along to future generations


The 7 characteristics of life 7

Darwin’s idea is not very complicated. It is based on 4 (empirical) observations which lead to 3 conclusions.

Conclusion #1 Competition

There will be competition for food, mates, space, refugia, sunlight, the best parking space, etc.


The 7 characteristics of life 7

Darwin’s idea is not very complicated. It is based on 4 (empirical) observations which lead to 3 conclusions.

Conclusion #2: Natural Selection

If there is competition for resources among individuals that vary… then THERE WILL BE NATURAL SELECTION.


The 7 characteristics of life 7

Conclusion #3: Evolution

IF there is natural selection AND certain characteristics are heritable…

THEN there will be…

EVOLUTION BY NATURAL SELECTION.


Conclusion 3 evolution by natural selection

Conclusion #3: Evolution by Natural Selection


Set it up like this1

Set it up like this!

Observation 1

Observation 2

+

Observation 3

Conclusion 1

+

Observation 4

Conclusion 2

+

Conclusion 3


Move on to next set

Move on to Next Set


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