托福听力 -. 如何听篇章结构. 为什么要了解一篇 lecture 的篇章结构？. lecture 考察的侧重点. lecture 考察的侧重点. 文章的主旨内容 文章中重要的论点、论据 与主要论点相关的细节及例子 不考与主要内容无关的细枝末节. 不同的篇章结构. 出题侧重点有所不同 听音侧重点有所不同 记笔记方式有所不同. 篇章结构的类型. 列举型 直线型 对比型 . 1. 列举型. 特征 : 并列结构 , 往往通过某个事件的几个构成要素来阐明全文主旨 文章结构清晰 , 容易找准分层 信号词：
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特征: 并列结构, 往往通过某个事件的几个构成要素来阐明全文主旨
1. 数字: first, second…, three, four… a number of, several…
2. way / point / factor / element/ issue / problem / hypothesis / theory
In order to really study the social history of the Middle Ages, you have to understand the role of spices. Now, this might sound a little spurring, even a little strange. But what seem like little things now were back then actually rather big things……
We can boil it down to there general ideas briefly. One was cost and rarity. Uh two was exotic taste and fragrance. And third, mysterious origins and kinds of mythical status. Now for cost and rarity…. Now for the taste…….So the cook started looking for new ways to improve the taste and spices were the answer, which brings us to mysterious origin and mythical status.
So the cook started looking for new ways to improve the taste and spices were the answer, which brings us to mysterious origins and mythical status. Now the ancient Romans had a thriving spice trade and they sent their ships to the east and back. But when Rome collapsed in the fifth century and the Middle Ages began, direct trade stopped, and so did that kind of hands-on knowledge of travel and geography. Spices now came by way of the trade routes with lots of intermediaries between the producer and the consumer. So these spices took on an air of mystery.
A. To indicate that the spice trade became more direct
B. To explain why the price of pepper suddenly increased
C. To indicate that spices were not available in Europe for centuries
D. To explain why the origins of spices became more mysterious
OK, now I wanna talk about an animal that has a fascinating set of defense mechanisms. And that\'s the octopus, one of the unusual creatures that live in the sea…. the octopus can go through all kinds of incredible transformations. And it does this in three ways: bychangingcolor, by changing its texture, and by changing its size and shape.
Ok, the next kind of animal behavior I want to talk about might be familiar to you. You may have seen, for example, a bird that’s in the middle of a mating ritual, and suddenly it stops and preens, you know, it takes a few moments to straighten its feathers, and then returns to the mating ritual. This kind of behavior, this doing something that seems completely out of place, is what we call a ‘Displacement Activity’.
Displacement activities are activities that animals engage in when they have conflicting drives. If we take our example from a minute ago, if the bird is afraid of its mate, it’s conflicted. It wants to mate but it’s also afraid and wants to run away. So, instead, it starts grooming itself. So, the displacement activity, the grooming, the straightening of its feathers, seems to be an irrelevant behavior.
———————————————————1. 通过具体例子来说明什么叫做Displacement Activity —————————————
Pro: So, what do you think another example of a displacement activity might be? （提问分层）
Karl: How about an animal that, um, instead of fighting its enemy or running away, it attacks a plant or a bush?
Pro: That’s really good suggestion, Karl. But that’s called ‘redirecting’. The animal is redirecting its behavior to another object, in this case, the plant or the bush. But that’s not an irrelevant or inappropriate behavior. The behavior makes sense. It’s appropriate under the circumstances. But what doesn’t make sense is the object the behavior‘s directed towards.
———————— 2. 教授提问引出第2层次，通过学生的错误例子引出什么叫redirecting —————————
Carol: I think I read in another class about an experiment where an object that the animal was afraid of was put next to its food – next to the animal’s food. And the animal, it was conflicted between confronting the object and eating the food, so instead, it just fell asleep. Like that?
Pro: That’s exactly what I mean. Displacement occurs because the animal’s got two conflicting drives – two competing urges, in this case, fear and hunger. And what happens is, they inhibit each other, they cancel each other out in a way, and a third seemingly irrelevant behavior surfaces through a process that we call ‘Disinhibition’.
Pro: Now, in disinhibition, the basic idea is that two drives that seem to inhibit, to hold back, a third drive. Well, well, they’re getting in a way of each other in a… in a conflict situation and somehow lose control, lose their inhibiting effect on that third behavior, which means that the third drive surfaces, it’s expressed in the animal’s behavior.
———————————————————— 3. 教授提问引出inhibition———————————————————————————
Pro: Now, these displacement activities can include feeding, drinking, grooming, even sleeping. These are what we call ‘Comfort Behavior’. So why do you think displacement activities are so often comfort behaviors, such as grooming? (提问分层)
Karl: Maybe because it’s easy for them to do? I mean, grooming is like one of the most accessible things an animal can do. It’s something they do all the time, and they have the stimulus right there on the outside of their bodies in order to do the grooming, or if food is right in front of them. Basically, they don’t have to think very much about those behaviors.
—————————— 4. 教授提问引出—为什么displacement activity 总是那些comfort behavior—————————
Carol: Professor, isn’t it possible that animals groom because they’ve got messed up a little from fighting or mating? I mean if a bird’s feathers get ruffled or an animal’s fur, maybe it’s not so strange for them to stop and tidy themselves up at that point. (提问分层)
Pro: That’s another possible reason although it doesn’t necessarily explain other behaviors such as eating, drinking or sleeping.What’s interesting is that studies have been done that suggest that the animal’s environment may play a part in determining what kind of behavior it displays. For example, there’s a bird, the ‘wood thrush’, anyway, when the ‘wood thrush’ is in an attack-escape conflict, that is, it’s caught between the two urges to escape from or to attack an enemy, if it’s sitting on a horizontal branch, it’ll wipe its beak on its perch. If it’s sitting on a vertical branch, it’ll groom its breast feathers. The immediate environment of the bird, its immediate, um, its relationship to its immediate environment seems to play a part in which behavior will display.
———————————— 5. 学生提问表质疑，引出环境对displacement activity的影响 ————————————
Now we can\'t really talk about fairy tales without first talking about folk tales because there\'s a strong connection between these two genres, these two types of stories. In fact, many fairy tales started out as folk tales.
fairy tales folk tales
A. Oral traditions in folktales and fairy tales
B. Common characters and plots in folktales and fairy tales
C. Differences between folktales and fairy tales
D. Hidden meaning in folktales and fairy tales
In the lecture, the professor discusses characteristics of folktales and fairy tales, indicate the characteristics of each type of the tale.
OK, so the two poems we are looking at today fall into the category of ... uh ... Medievaltimes, which was how long ago?
6. What is the main purpose of the lecture?
A. To investigate the information known about the troubadours
B. To explain the role of patriotic poetry during medieval times
C. To explain why opinions about knights changed during the medieval period
D. To compare two different types of medieval poems
According to the professor what is true about the hero in chanson poetry and the in romance poetry?
1. 对比型结构的文章，主旨题的正确选项中往往有different, difference, compare, comparison等词。