Christian military expeditions designed to recapture the Holy Land. VS. Why did they happen?. In the 1050s, Seljuk Turks invaded the Byzantine Empire and overran Christian lands in Asia Minor.
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Christian military expeditions designed
to recapture the Holy Land
Why did they happen?
In the 1050s, Seljuk Turks invaded
the Byzantine Empire and overran
Christian lands in Asia Minor.
At the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II encouraged French & German bishops to recover Jerusalem (Holy Land).
Medieval Sourcebook: Urban II - Speech at the Council of Clermont
Christians who answered Urban II’s call
became known as crusaders (to take up the cross)
Many causes for Crusades
(political, economical, social, religious):
Some Important Crusades:
1st Crusade (Peasants Crusade) was successful as the Christians captured Jerusalem from the Muslims, but eventually lost the city to Saladin.
3rd Crusade (King’s Crusade)was led by Richard the Lion-Hearted
(King of England). Richard conquered many cities but never Jerusalem
4th – Crusade (Sack of Constantinople) – Crusaders attack
Constantinople for money (pay back loans from Venetians)
and this ended with Christians fighting Christians.
Children's Crusade- thousands of children set out for the Holy Land
(never made it) many died and the rest were sold into slavery
The Crusades failed to maintain their goal of reconquring
the Holy Land but they are often called the most successful
failure in history because….
Effects of Crusades
Impact of Crusades
money for rent
world & discover
Need $$$ (not crops) to pay for Crusades
ideas and products
Europeans start to use
money, coins, & banks
Trade & towns make
money off Crusaders
The Crusades grew from the forces of religious fervor, feudalism,
and chivalry as they came together with explosive energy. That
same energy could be seen in the growth of trade, towns, and
universities in medieval Europe.