Child maltreatment 2007 highlights trends and measures
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Child Maltreatment 2007: Highlights, Trends, and Measures. John A. Gaudiosi, DBA Children’s Bureau, US HHS Mary Jo Ortiz, MA Madonna M. Aveni Walter R. McDonald & Associates, Inc. Today’s Discussion. Introduction Child Maltreatment 2007 findings Round 2 CFSR Safety Indicators

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Child Maltreatment 2007: Highlights, Trends, and Measures

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Child maltreatment 2007 highlights trends and measures

Child Maltreatment 2007: Highlights, Trends, and Measures

John A. Gaudiosi, DBA

Children’s Bureau, US HHS

Mary Jo Ortiz, MA

Madonna M. Aveni

Walter R. McDonald & Associates, Inc.


Today s discussion

Today’s Discussion

Introduction

Child Maltreatment 2007 findings

Round 2 CFSR Safety Indicators

Additional data usage and trends


Ncands background

NCANDS Background

The 1988 CAPTA directed the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to establish a national data collection and analysis program

The data are submitted voluntarily by the States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

The first report from NCANDS was based on data for 1990; the report for FFY 2007 data is the 18th annual report


Ncands data collection and analysis methods

NCANDS Data Collection and Analysis Methods

Sample

Annual universe of reported child maltreatment

Data are from State CPS agency information systems

Representation

Covers national child protective services

Includes data from all States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

Data Collection

Case-level data: 1 child-specific record for each report of alleged maltreatment that received a disposition (finding) due to an investigation or assessment

Agency-level aggregated data


Key findings from child maltreatment 2007

Key Findings from Child Maltreatment 2007

Reporting period: Federal fiscal year 2007 (Oct 1, 2006-Sept 30, 2007)

Reporting States: 50 States (including DC and PR) submitted data to NCANDS.

2 States (Maryland and Michigan) did not submit data.

48 States submitted case-level data

2 States (North Dakota and Oregon) submitted aggregate data


Reported cases of abuse and neglect

Reported Cases of Abuse and Neglect

  • Estimated 3.2 million referrals to child protective services agencies (CPS)

    • Involved approximately 5.8 million children

  • Estimated 3.5 million children were the subjects of an investigation or assessment

    • The disposition rate was 47.2 per 1,000 children in the population


Report sources

Report Sources

  • Professionals- person encountered the alleged victim as part of the report source’s occupation

    • Submitted 57.7% of reports

  • Nonprofessionals-includes parents, relatives, friends, neighbors, alleged victims, etc.

    • Submitted 26.8% of reports

  • Unknown or Other-not otherwise classified, clergy members, sport coach, foster sibling

    • Submitted 15.7% of reports


Ncands victims

NCANDS Victims

  • A child is a victim if there is a disposition of:

    • Substantiated

    • Indicated

    • Alternative Response Victim

      OR

    • Fatality

  • Otherwise a child is a nonvictim


Child victims

Child Victims

  • Estimated 794,000 children were victims of maltreatment

  • Rate of maltreatment was 10.6 per 1,000 children in the population


Disposition and victimization trends

Disposition and Victimization Trends

Disposition rate increased from 46.3 in 2003 to 47.2 for 2007

Victimization rate decreased from 12.2 in 2003 to 10.6 in 2007


Victimization trends

Victimization Trends

  • The number of victims and rate decreased from 2006 to 2007. Decrease attributed to:

    • 2006 51 States vs. 2007 50 States reporting

    • SACWIS implementations

    • Increase in children who received “other” dispositions

    • Decrease in the percentage of children who received substantiated or indicated dispositions

    • Decrease in the number of children who received an investigation or assessment


Victimization rates by age and sex

Victimization Rates by Age and Sex

  • More than 50% (51.5%) of victims were girls and 48.2% were boys

  • Victims younger than 1 year had the highest rate of victimization--22.2 and 21.5 per 1,000 children of the boy and girl populations, respectively


Maltreatment types of victims

“Other” includes “threatened abuse,” “threatened neglect,” “lack of supervision,” “exploitation-extortion,” “exploitation-parasitic relationship,” and “exploitation-unexplained disappearance of funds.”

Maltreatment Types of Victims


Race and ethnicity of victims

Race and Ethnicity of Victims

Rate

Percentage


Child fatalities

Child Fatalities

  • An estimated 1,760 children died from abuse or neglect during 2007

  • More than 75% of the children who died from maltreatment were younger than 4 years old.


Child fatality trend

Child Fatality Trend

  • Several States have reported increased fatalities during the past few years, which can partly be attributed to better reporting. Not all causes of the increase are immediately identifiable.


Maltreatment types of fatalities

Maltreatment Types of Fatalities


Perpetrators

Perpetrators

  • Nearly 80% of perpetrators were parents of the victim

  • 6.6% were relatives other than a parent

  • 4.5% were an unmarried partner of the parent


Perpetrators by type of maltreatment

Perpetrators by Type of Maltreatment


Victims and nonvictims receiving in home services

Victims and NonvictimsReceiving In-Home Services

Victims

Nonvictims

Received Services

Did Not Receive Services


Victims removed from the home

Victims Removed from the Home

  • 20.7% of victims placed in care

  • 3.8% of nonvictims placed in care


Maltreatment types of victims removed from the home

Maltreatment Types of VictimsRemoved from the Home


Child and family services reviews

Child and Family Services Reviews


Cfsr round 2

CFSR Round 2

Round 2 July 2006

Absence of Recurrence of Child Abuse and Neglect

Standard: 94.6% or more

Absence of CAN in Foster Care in 12 months

Standard: 99.68% or more


Absence of maltreatment recurrence within a 6 month period

Absence of Maltreatment Recurrence within a 6-month Period

Standard = 94.6%


State performance 2007 absence of recurrence

State Performance 2007Absence of Recurrence

Standard = 94.6%

48 States Reporting


Absence of maltreatment in foster care

Absence of Maltreatment in Foster Care

Standard = 99.68


State performance 2007 absence of abuse in foster care

State Performance 2007Absence of Abuse in Foster Care

Standard = 99.68%

45 States Reporting


Other uses of ncands data

Child Welfare Outcomes Annual Report

The AFCARS report (TAR)

Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART)

Community-Based Child Abuse Prevention State Grants (CBCAP)

Fourth National Incidence Study (NIS-4)

National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being

Statistical Abstract of the United States

America’s Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being

House Committee on Ways and Means Greenbook

Other Uses of NCANDS Data

  • NCANDS data are a critical source of information

  • for many publications, reports, and activities of the

  • Federal Government and other groups


New research

New Research

  • A Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) article using NCANDS data was co-written by Children’s Bureau staff, NCANDS Technical Team staff, and Centers for Disease Control staff. The article discussed the nonfatal maltreatment of infants <1 year old. Go to:http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/wk/mm5713.pdf

  • Article from Crimes Against Children Research Center used NCANDS data to analyze victim maltreatment type trends. Go to: http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/


Trendy trends

Report Investigation Trends, 2003-2007

PART Measure: Response Time in Hours, 2005-2007

Child Disposition Rates, 2003-2007

Victimization Rates, 2003-2007

Child Victimization Rates Trend, 2003-2007

PART Measure: First-Time Victims 2005-2007

Absence of Maltreatment Recurrence, 2004-2007

Absence of Maltreatment in Foster Care, 2004-2007

Child Fatality Rates per 100,000 Children, 2003-2007

Trendy Trends

  • Many recent NCANDS ad hoc analyses and

  • inquiries have been about data aspects over time.

  • Child Maltreatment has nine trend tables

  • containing a minimum of 3 years of data.


Child maltreatment reports

Child Maltreatment Reports

Child Maltreatment reports are available online and for PDF download on the Children’s Bureau Web site at:

  • www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/stats_research/index.htm#can


Obtaining data sets

Obtaining Data Sets

  • Researchers can obtain 1990-2006 (2007 will be available soon) NCANDS data from:

    • National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect at Cornell:

      www.ndacan.cornell.edu


Contact information

Contact Information

  • John Gaudiosi

  • Mathematical Statistician

  • Children’s Bureau

  • Administration on Children, Youth

  • and Families

  • 1250 Maryland Avenue, SW 8th Floor

  • Washington DC 20024

  • [email protected]


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