flowering plants
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Flowering Plants

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 50

Flowering Plants - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 69 Views
  • Uploaded on

Flowering Plants. Flower. Leaf. Stem. Roots. A Leaf. Lamina. Midrib. Vein. Leaf Structure. Waxy cuticle. Epidermis. Palisade mesophyll layer. Air spaces. Spongy mesophyll layer. Stoma. Epidermis. Waxy Cuticle & Epidermis. Waxy cuticle. Epidermis.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Flowering Plants' - rebecca-odom


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
flowering plants
Flowering Plants

Flower

Leaf

Stem

Roots

a leaf
A Leaf

Lamina

Midrib

Vein

leaf structure
Leaf Structure

Waxy cuticle

Epidermis

Palisade mesophyll layer

Air spaces

Spongy mesophyll layer

Stoma

Epidermis

waxy cuticle epidermis
Waxy Cuticle & Epidermis

Waxy cuticle

Epidermis

The waxy cuticle is a thin layer atop the epidermis.

Its function is to reduce the water lost from the leaf.

In arid conditions this cuticle layer can be quite thick.

Epidermis cells contain no chloroplasts – not true of the stoma cells.

They form layers on the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf.

Their function is to prevent water getting out and stopping unwanted substances/organisms getting in.

palisade mesophyll layer
Palisade Mesophyll Layer

The palisade mesophyll layer is where most of the photosynthesis occurs in the leaf.

Palisade mesophyll layer

The palisade cells contain a lot of chloroplasts to help them perform this photosynthesis.

The palisade cells are closely packed together to maximize light absorption.

In the leaf cross-section shown the palisade cells are only found in the upper part of the leaf.

spongy mesophyll layer
Spongy Mesophyll Layer

The cells in the spongy mesophyll layer are not as closely packed as the cells in the palisade mesophyll layer.

This creates air spaces inside the leaf to enable gases to move in and out.

Spongy mesophyll layer

There are not as many chloroplasts in the spongy mesophyll cells as there are in the palisade mesophyll cells – but photosynthesis still occurs in the spongy mesophyll layer.

stomata1
Stomata

There are holes found in leaves called stomata.

These holes allows gases to diffuse in and out of the leaves.

A stoma is formed by two highly specialized epidermis cells.

These cells, called guard cells, are the only epidermis cells that contain chloroplasts.

The stomata open and close depending upon the requirements of the plant.

It is through these stomata that water leaves the leaf, the process that powers transpiration.

Stoma

stomata2
Stomata

Stoma open

Stoma closed

During photosynthesis carbon dioxide diffuses in and oxygen diffuses out

When the stomata are closed,often at night or in a humid environment, this stops gases diffusing in and out of the leaf

key words
Key Words

Waxy cuticle

Waterproof layer atop the epidermis

Stomata

Pores that allow gaseous exchange

Found in the spongy mesophyll layer, enable gases to reach the leaf cells

Air spaces

One-cell thick outer layer of cells that prevent water loss from the leaf

Epidermis

Contain numerous chloroplasts and are densely packed

Palisade mesophyll cell

Loosely packed cells that do not contain as many chloroplasts as palisade cells

Spongy mesophyll cell

photosynthesis
Photosynthesis

Chloroplasts are organelles of plant cells that contain a green substance called chlorophyll.

Scientists believe chlorophyll absorbs light energy and this energy is then used to make food.

The raw materials of photosynthesis are carbon dioxide and water. The waste product of this reaction is oxygen.

The carbon dioxide required is absorbed through the stomata in the leaves – this is how the oxygen is also removed.

The water required is absorbed by the roots.

The word equation for this reaction is...

The chemical equation for this reaction is...

6H2O + 6CO2 C6H12O6 + 6O2

investigating photosynthesis
Investigating Photosynthesis

Chlorophyll makes leaves green, but is chlorophyll required for photosynthesis?

Your teacher will give you two leaves, one is completely green.

The other leaf is called a variegated leaf. The areas that are not green contain little or no chlorophyll.

Both leaves have previously been destarched. Do you know how to destarch a leaf?

Plan an investigation to discover if chlorophyll is required for photosynthesis.

How will you test to see if photosynthesis has occurred?

What do you predict your results will be?

What apparatus will you require?

What safety precautions will you need to observe?

investigating photosynthesis1
Investigating Photosynthesis

Is carbon dioxide required for photosynthesis?

Your teacher will give you two plants, one is enclosed in plastic and contains a chemical that absorbs carbon dioxide.

Plan an investigation to discover if carbon dioxide is required for photosynthesis.

What do you predict your results will be?

What apparatus will you require?

Why are two plants used?

How will you evaluate your results?

What chemical will you use to remove carbon dioxide?

using plants
Using Plants

Humans have used plants for thousands of years.

There are many different uses of plants by humans. The cotton plant shown is used to produce cotton for clothing etc.

exercise 1 complete the table
Exercise 1: Complete the Table

Rhubarb

Potato

Lettuce

Broccoli

Cauliflower

Celery

Turnip

Cabbage

Carrot

Rhubarb

Broccoli

Celery

Turnip

Potato

Lettuce

Cauliflower

Cabbage

Carrot

exercise 2 the leaf
Exercise 2: The Leaf

1. _____

Vein

Lamina

2. ______

3. _______

Midrib

Midrib

Extension of the stalk into the leaf

Vein

The blade of the leaf

Lamina

Attaches the leaf to the stem

Stalk

Branch-off from the midrib

exercise 3 label the parts of a plant
Exercise 3: Label the Parts of a Plant

1. _______

Flower

2. _______

Leaves

3. _____

Stem

4. ______

Roots

exercise 5 leaf structure
Exercise 5: Leaf Structure

1. ___________

Waxy cuticle

2. ___________

Epidermis

3. ______________________

Palisade mesophyll layer

4. __________

Air space

5. _____________________

Spongy mesophyll layer

6. ________

Stoma

7. __________

Epidermis

exercise 6 link the boxes
Exercise 6: Link the Boxes

Pores that allow gaseous exchange

Waxy cuticle

Found in the spongy mesophyll layer, enable gases to reach the leaf cells

Stomata

Waterproof layer atop the epidermis

Air spaces

exercise 7 link the boxes
Exercise 7: Link the Boxes

Loosely packed cells that do not contain as many chloroplasts as palisade cells

Epidermis

One-cell thick outer layer of cells that prevent water loss from the leaf

Palisade mesophyll cell

Contain numerous chloroplasts and are densely packed, where most of the photosynthesis occurs

Spongy mesophyll cell

exercise 8 short questions leaf
Exercise 8: Short Questions - Leaf

1. What do we call the continuation of the leaf stalk into the leaf-blade?

2. What do we call the specially adapted cells that form holes in the leaves to allow gaseous exchange?

3. What are these holes/pores called?

4. What is the name of the waxy waterproof layer found on top of the epidermis?

5. What is the lamina?

Midrib

Guard cells

Stomata

Cuticle

The leaf-blade

exercise 9 short questions leaf
Exercise 9: Short Questions - Leaf

1. What do we call the outer one-cell thick layer of cells that contain no chloroplasts?

2. What is the function of this layer?

3. What are two differences between palisade mesophyll cells (PMC) and spongy mesophyll cells (SMC)?

4. By what process does carbon dioxide enter and leave leaves?

The epidermis

To prevent water loss and to stop substances and organisms entering the leaf

SMC – more loosely packed, less chloroplasts

PMC – more densely packed, more chloroplasts

Diffusion

exercise 10 insert the missing words
Exercise 10: Insert the Missing Words

Chloroplasts __________ of plant cells that contain a green substance called __________.

Scientists believe chlorophyll absorbs _____ energy and this energy is then used to make _____.

The raw materials of photosynthesis are carbon dioxide and _____. This waste product of this reaction is _______.

The carbon dioxide required is absorbed through the _______ in the leaves – this is how the oxygen is also removed.

The water required is absorbed by the _____.

organelles

chlorophyll

light

food

water

oxygen

stomata

roots

roots organelles light food

water chlorophyll oxygen stomata

exercise 11 short questions photosynthesis
Exercise 11: Short Questions - Photosynthesis

1. Which organelles in plant cells contain a green substance called chlorophyll?

2. Which two raw materials are required by green plants for photosynthesis?

3. What is the waste product of photosynthesis?

4. How does this waste product leave the plant during the day?

5. What process requires this waste product to enable green plants to release energy from their food?

Chloroplasts

Water and carbon dioxide

Oxygen

Through the stomata

Respiration

exercise 12 short questions plant nutrition
Exercise 12: Short Questions – Plant Nutrition

1. What do we call the process whereby green plants make glucose using light energy and the raw materials carbon dioxide and water?

2. During the night many green plants perform another process whereby they release the energy from their food they have made. What do we call this process?

3. The sugar glucose, the product of photosynthesis, is changed to starch when it is being stored by the plant. Why?

4. What is the chemical formula of glucose?

Photosynthesis

Respiration

Glucose is soluble in water, starch is insoluble in water. By storing the food starch it means it is easier for the plant to keep the food in the required place

C6H12O6

exercise 13 short questions plant nutrition
Exercise 13: Short Questions – Plant Nutrition

1. What is the word equation for photosynthesis?

2. What is the chemical equation for photosynthesis?

3. Name the arrowed organelle.

4. Which substance does this organelle contain that allows green plants to absorb the Sun’s light energy for the process of photosynthesis?

6H2O + 6CO2 C6H12O6 + 6O2

Chloroplast

Chlorophyll

exercise 14 variegated leaf
Exercise 14: Variegated Leaf

A destarched variegated plant was left in a sunny garden during the day for several hours.

At the end of this period a leaf was taken from the plant and tested for starch.

The results are shown below…

Variegated leaf before starch test

Variegated leaf after starch test

Explain the result observed(8 marks)

exercise 15 products of photosynthesis
Exercise 15: Products of Photosynthesis

Some destarched pondweed was set-up as below.

A bright lamp was placed nearby for two hours.

The following results were observed at the end of this period.

Before lamp turned on

After six hours of lamp shining

Explain the result observed(6 marks)

exercise 16 short questions
Exercise 16: Short Questions

1. What is a variegated leaf?

2. Draw a diagram of a variegated leaf.

3. What is the chemical test for starch?

4. How do you destarch a green plant?

Parts of the leaf do not contain chlorophyll, other parts do

Starch turns orange/brown iodine solution purple/black

You leave it in the dark for several days so that its food stores (starch) are exhausted

exercise 17 label the leaf parts
Exercise 17: Label the Leaf Parts

A

C

B

A. _______________

B. _______________

C. _______________

Lamina

Vein

Midrib

ad