International trade factors
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International Trade Factors. Treaties/Agreements Each Country Wants To Make Its Goods/Services More Competitive Rule Of Law/Property Rights Apply To Businesses Nation-States. What Is International Law?. Principles Widely Practiced And Acknowledged By Civilized Nations To Be Law.

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International Trade Factors

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International trade factors

International Trade Factors

  • Treaties/Agreements

  • Each Country Wants To Make Its Goods/Services More Competitive

  • Rule Of Law/Property Rights Apply To

    • Businesses

    • Nation-States


International trade factors

What Is International Law?

  • Principles Widely Practiced And Acknowledged By Civilized Nations To Be Law.

  • Paquette Habana Case (1900) – International Law Is Part Of Our Law. (U.S. Supreme Court)

  • International Organizations


Public international law

Public International Law

  • Statute Of The International Court Of Justice (World Court)

  • Non-Binding Decisions

  • Applies To Disputes

    • International Conventions

    • International Custom

    • General Principles Of Law

    • Judicial Decisions/Teachings Of Qualified Publicists


Private international law

Private International Law

  • Laws Of Nations

  • Multilateral Agreements

  • Conflicting/Differing Laws Create Instability

  • International Commerce Is Complex

  • Determining Proper Forum (Court) Difficult


International trade factors

United Nations

  • Post World War II

  • Goal – To Save Succeeding Generations From Scourge of War.

  • Authorizes Collective Measures For Prevention And Removal Of Threats To Peace, And Suppression Of Acts Of Aggression.


World trade organization wto

World Trade Organization (WTO)

  • General Agreement On Tariffs And Trade (GATT) (1948)

  • 1994 Uruguay Round –

    Amended GATT & Created

    WTO

  • Principles

    • All Members Equal In Trade

    • No Favoring Of Domestic Over Imported Goods/Services

    • Eliminate Trade Barriers

Montevideo, Uruguay Harbor Courtesy of C. Bowles


European union

European Union

  • Treaty Of Rome (1957)

  • Single European Act (1987) - Remove Barriers To European Trade

  • Maastricht Treaty (1992) - Create Federal Government

    • Commission Of Entire Union

    • Coordinate Policies Of Members

  • Nice Summit (2000)- Added (2007) 12 Members To Original 15


Conventions on international sale of goods

Conventions On International Sale Of Goods

  • Effective 1988

  • Applies To Contracts For Commercial Sale Of Goods

  • Supercedes U.S. Commercial Code Freedom In Contract Negotiation- Not In Writing


North american free trade agreement 1993

North American Free Trade Agreement (1993)

  • Among US/Mexico/Canada

  • Free Trade

  • Dispute Settlement

  • U.S. Has Trade Deficit With Both


International trade factors

Central American-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR)

  • 2005

  • Similar to NAFTA

  • Among Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, The Dominican Republic And The United States

  • Eliminate Product Trade Barriers


Transacting international business

Transacting International Business

  • Foreign Sales

    • Irrevocable Letter Of Credit - Buyers Issuing Bank

    • Bill Of Lading - Seller’s Confirming Bank

  • License/Franchise

  • Direct Foreign Investment

    • Foreign Subsidiary

    • Joint Venture


International trade risks

International Trade Risks

  • Loss Of Investment

    • Expropriation - Confiscation

    • Nationalization - Power Of Eminent Domain

  • Export Controls

  • Bribes - Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (1977)

  • U.S. Antitrust Conflicts


Resolving international disputes

Resolving International Disputes

  • Suing Foreign Governments- Sovereign Immunity

    - Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (1976)

    - Commercial Acts

  • Suing Foreign Firms- Hague Service Convention

  • Alien Tort Claims Act

  • International Arbitration


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