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Gareth Lim Lead, EMS Engineering. West-wide System Model (WSM): Building and Maintaining the WSM Model August 22 nd , 2012. WECC Balancing Areas Footprint. West-wide System Model (WSM). WECC WSM:

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gareth lim lead ems engineering

Gareth LimLead, EMS Engineering

West-wide System Model (WSM): Building and Maintaining the WSM Model

August 22nd, 2012

west wide system model wsm
West-wide System Model (WSM)
    • Is an operational model used by the WECC Reliability Coordination offices to provide situational awareness and real-time supervision of the entire Western Interconnection
    • Consist of a Full Node-Breaker model, depicting breaker configuration details (e.g. ring-bus, breaker-and-half, main-bus-aux-bus, double-breaker configurations .. etc)
    • Is integrated with real-time telemetry (via ICCP) providing situational awareness of the flows and loading of the transmission system
west wide system model wsm1
West-wide System Model (WSM)
  • WECC WSM is a product of the three existing RCO models (RDRC, CMRC, and PNSC)
    • CIM XML formatted Models (RDRC & CMRC) & Areva EMS Netmom (PNSC) were merged
    • Merged Model required clean-up: removal of duplicate lines & substations, standardization of basic modeling methodology & naming conventions
    • Result: West-wide System Model (WSM) Areva EMS Netmom

PNSC (Areva)


RDRC(GE Harris)

west wide system model wsm2
West-wide System Model (WSM)
  • West-wide System (WSM) Network Model is supported by the following additional models / databases, used to support the Reliability Coordinator Real-Time Applications:
    • Scada Model
    • ICCP Model
    • Alarm Model
    • Contingency Definitions Model
    • Remedial Action Schemes (RAS) Model
west wide system model wsm3
West-wide System Model (WSM)
  • Network Model:
    • 12,000+ Busses Model (dynamic)
      • 7,600+ Busses Above 100kV
    • 6,900+ Substations
    • 11,000+ Transmission Lines
    • 5,100+ Transformers
    • 3,000+ Generating Units
  • WSM Model is updated every 4 – 6 weeks (or as needed to address critical model issues)
west wide system model wsm4
West-wide System Model (WSM)
  • Real-Time Telemetered Data
    • 98000+ Real-Time Telemetry (ICCP)
      • 47,000 Analog Measurements
      • 51,000 Status Measurements
    • Measurement Observability

Redundancy Ratio = (No. of Analog Measurements) / (No. of State Variables to be Solved for)

west wide system model wsm5
West-wide System Model (WSM)
  • Model Build Process:
    • Transmission Owners / Balancing Authorities submit Model Data 30-days in advance of transmission & generation changes (equipment parameters, substation breaker one-lines, estimated in-service dates)
    • WECC RC Modeling Engineers update the WSM Network Model with the associated modeling changes
    • WECC RC Modeling & Study Engineers create / update the other supporting EMS models / databases – i.e. Scada model, ICCP model, Alarm model, Contingency Definitions model, RAS model
    • WECC RC Applications & Study Engineers validate the new EMS model release in the Testing environment
    • WECC RC Modeling Engineers update the one-line displays
    • New EMS model release is deployed
west wide system model wsm6
West-wide System Model (WSM)
  • Model Data Submission Method:
    • Incremental Model Submission
      • Individual Substation breaker one-line diagram
      • Modeling Parameters in emails, spreadsheets
    • Full Model Submission
      • System / Overview Switching One-lines
      • Alstom Netmom database
      • Individual Entities’ PSLF cases
      • WECC Planning Basecase
      • Modeling Parameters in spreadsheets, official documents(e.g. FAC-009 Facility Equipment Ratings)
west wide system model wsm7
West-wide System Model (WSM)
  • Model Data Submission Method:
    • Submission Method:
      • E-mail submission via the WSMModelUpdates WECC distribution list ([email protected])
      • Secure Email Message / Inbox
      • WECC FTP site
    • Submitter:
      • Operations Personnel / EMS Personnel / Planning Personnel – Dependent on each entities’ policies and procedures
wsm model update process1
WSM Model Update Process
  • Modeling in E-terrasource
  • Validating & Exporting Basecase Model + Projects
    • To ensure no basic modeling errors were made
  • Running Basecase Powerflow Solution
    • To ensure no ‘major’ topological error or incorrect modeling parameters were made – causing powerflow divergence / abnormal voltage solutions
  • Map & Remap Real-Time ICCP measurements
wsm model update process2
WSM Model Update Process
  • Create the Scada, ICCP & Alarm Models
    • To provide measurement observability for alarming & network applications monitoring
  • Running State Estimator Solutions
    • To ensure model is consistent with the available set of mapped measurements
    • To tune the State Estimator solution parameters with the updated model topology & measurement set
wsm model update process3
WSM Model Update Process
  • Add & Update Contingency & Remedial Action Schemes (RAS) Definitions
    • To ensure contingency definitions & RAS definitions are consistent with the updated model topology
  • Running Contingency Analysis Solution
    • To ensure no topological error or contingency definition error causing unsolved / invalid contingency solutions
  • Update Substation & Overview one-line displays
    • To ensure proper visualization of the updated transmission system topology
modeling in e terrasource
Modeling in E-terrasource
  • Model Update Process:
    • WECC RC Modeling Engineers use the Alstom E-terrasource modeling tool to build
    • Each modeler works in their own independent workspaces
      • Allows for parallel modeling - can have different models & projects loaded
      • Avoids the issue of shared resources
      • Avoids the risk of “one-corrupts-all”
      • Avoids the need for close-coordination of work (e.g. when performing validation, model export)
    • Each modeler begins with the latest Model Authority Set – MAS (most recent model “basecase”) to create their projects
    • Model Integrator integrates the projects together, validates, and create a new MAS
modeling in e terrasource1
Modeling in E-terrasource

Network ParameterData

modeling in e terrasource2
Modeling in E-terrasource

Node ConnectivityData

Node 900C

Node 900D

modeling in e terrasource3
Modeling in E-terrasource

Graphical Modeler

map remap real time iccp meas
Map & Remap Real-Time ICCP Meas
  • ICCP MappingUpdate Process:

** Actual ICCP Object IDs have been ‘masked’ due to confidentiality of ICCP Object IDs

add update contingency definitions
Add & Update Contingency Definitions
  • Contingency Update Process:
    • Breaker-to-Breaker Contingencies
    • Lines: Greater 100 kV (excluding radial lines)
    • Transformer: Low-side greater than 90kV
    • Units: MW Capacity greater than 50 MW
update substation overview one lines
Update Substation & Overview one-lines
  • WSM Model – Cholla Substation One-line 500kV
update substation overview one lines1
Update Substation & Overview one-lines
  • WSM Model – Cholla substation on APS Overview
model testing
Model Testing
  • State Estimator Testing
  • Contingency Analysis Testing
  • Alarm Testing
  • Display Verifications
  • ICCP Data Verifications
west wide system model wsm8
West-wide System Model (WSM)
  • Model Export Formats:
    • PTI Raw File Format
      • Mapping done via Alstom Translation Table Mapping, manually maintained by WECC RC Modeling Staff
    • Alstom Netmom Savecase
    • CIM version 12
    • Powerworld CSV File Format

** WSM is available to signatories of the WSM License Agreement or the Universal NDA

continuous model validation
Continuous Model Validation
  • Running state estimation once every minute results in continuous model validation
  • WECC RC is enhancing tools to better identify topology errors, model errors, and measurement errors that contribute to incorrect state solutions
  • WECC RC has 24x7 monitoring support of the State Estimator solution quality
wsm model vs wecc basecase
WSM Model vs. WECC Basecase
  • WSM Model
    • Real-Time Operational Model used by the WECC RC
    • Contains Real-Time Telemetry, and Best Estimate of Current State of the System – Energy Usage, Generation Outputs, Transmission Loading, .. etc.
    • Updated by WECC RC Modeling Staff
  • WECC Basecase (BCS)
    • Planning Model used by the Planning Community
    • Contains Generation Dynamic Data
    • Updated by WECC Planning Community
reconciliation potential challenges
Reconciliation: Potential Challenges
  • Differences between WSM and WECC BCS
    • Differences in Modeling Granularity
      • WSM: 12030 Busses, BCS: 18012 Busses
      • 9774 of 18021 buses in WECC BCS (2012) is not matched in WSM model
      • Largely attributed to lower kV (69kV & 46kV) systems not modeled in WSM model
    • Differences in Modeling Time Horizon
      • WSM models current, and near future, WECC BCS models seasonal models, including future anticipated projects
    • Differences in Area Modeling
      • WSM model is based (for the most part) on Balancing Area footprints, BCS is based on Regional footprints (e.g. Northwest Region)
reconciliation potential challenges1
Reconciliation: Potential Challenges
  • Differences between WSM and WECC Basecase
    • Differences in Substation / Bus Topology Details
      • WSM model contains Full Node Breaker Detail vs. BCS contains Bus-Branch Representation
      • BCS using Jumpers to represent bus tie breakers
      • WSM model bus-branch equivalent is dynamic, depending on breaker switching in the case created
      • WSM model explicitly models each series capacitors as a separate line segment
      • WSM model contains zero-impedance branches to appropriately model metering locations


“Transformer Balancing Authority Ties”

“Bus-Tie Balancing Authority Ties”

reconciliation potential challenges2
Reconciliation: Potential Challenges
  • Differences between WSM and WECC Basecase
    • Differences in Generation Modeling
      • Inclusion / Exclusion of Generator Step-up Transformer
      • Inclusion / Exclusion of Station Service / Auxiliary Load

i.e. Net Generation vs Gross Generation Modeling

      • Aggregation of multiple generating units at a bus / substation

e.g. Wind Turbines, High-Pressure-Low-Pressure Turbines

reconciliation example difference
Reconciliation: Example Difference
  • Planning Basecase – Cholla 500kV (1-bus)
reconciliation example difference1
Reconciliation: Example Difference
  • WSM Model – Cholla 500kV (4-busses)
reconciliation example difference2
Reconciliation: Example Difference
  • WSM Model – Cholla 500kV (4-busses)
reconciliation example difference3
Reconciliation: Example Difference
  • WSM Model – Cholla 500kV (4-busses)
Gareth Lim

Lead, EMS Engineering

[email protected]