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CONDITIONALS. CONDITIONALS. WHAT ARE CONDITONALS?. A way of expressing possible or hypothetical situations. WHEN?. In the past, present and future. WHAT ARE THE MAIN CONDITIONALS?. The First, Second and Third Conditional. WHAT DO ALL CONDITIONAL CLAUSES INCLUDE?. If or Unless.

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Conditionals1
CONDITIONALS

WHAT ARE CONDITONALS?

A way of expressing possible or hypothetical situations

WHEN?

In the past, present and future.

WHAT ARE THE MAIN CONDITIONALS?

The First, Second and Third Conditional

WHAT DO ALL CONDITIONAL CLAUSES INCLUDE?

If or Unless


First conditional
FIRST CONDITIONAL

Which is a 1st Conditional sentence?

If we travelled to new galaxies, we could discover new planets.

If governments had invested more money in the space programme, we might have colonized Mars by now.

If the government spends more money on research, we will see more advances in space exploration.


Answer:

c) If the government spends more money on research, we will see more advances in space exploration.

FIRST CONDITIONAL


First conditional1

Read these 1st conditional sentences:

If the government spends more money on research, we will see more advances in space exploration.

If astronauts don’t have special spacesuits, they can’t survive in space.

FIRST CONDITIONAL

We use the 1st Conditional to talk about…



First conditional3

Read them again:

If the government spends more money on research, we willsee more advances in space exploration.

If astronauts don’t have special spacesuits, they can’t survive in space.

FIRST CONDITIONAL

What is the structure of 1st Conditional sentences?


First conditional4

IF/UNLESS + PRES. S. // FUT. S. or Modal + INF

(conditional clause) (main clause)

FIRST CONDITIONAL

  • Examples:

  • If we don’t hurry up we will miss the bus!

  • I will make you stay at home unless you tidy your room.

  • Unless Jane studies harder, she’ll fail the exam.

    (if Jane does not study harder, she'll fail the exam)

  • If you study, you may pass the exam.


Second conditional
SECOND CONDITIONAL

Which is a 2nd Conditional sentence?

If we travelled to new galaxies, we could discover new planets.

If governments had invested more money in the space programme, we might have colonized Mars by now.

If the government spends more money on research, we will see more advances in space exploration.


Second conditional1

Answer:

a) If we travelled to new galaxies, we could discover new planets.

SECOND CONDITIONAL


Second conditional2

Read these 2nd conditional sentences:

If we travelled to new galaxies, we could discover new planets.

What would you do if you had an invisibility cloak?

SECOND CONDITIONAL

We use the 2nd Conditional to talk about…



Second conditional4

Read them again:

If we travelled to new galaxies, we coulddiscover new planets.

What would you doif you had an invisibility cloak?

SECOND CONDITIONAL

What is the structure of 2nd Conditional sentences?


Second conditional5

IF + PAST. S. // WOULD or COULD + INF

(conditional clause) (main clause)

SECOND CONDITIONAL

  • Examples:

  • If I were 18 again, I would go on a round-the-world-tour.

  • If he wasn’t so bad-tempered, these things wouldn’t happen.

  • If scientists didn’t spend so much money on space exploration, we would solve more important global issues.


Third conditional
THIRD CONDITIONAL

Which is a 3rd Conditional sentence?

If we travelled to new galaxies, we could discover new planets.

If governments had invested more money in the space programme, we might have colonized Mars by now.

If the government spends more money on research, we will see more advances in space exploration.


Third conditional1

Answer:

b) If governments had invested more money in the space programme, we might have colonized Mars by now.

THIRD CONDITIONAL


Third conditional2

Read these 3rd conditional sentences:

If governments had invested more money in the space programme, we might have colonized Mars by now.

What would have happened if people in Leonardo da Vinci’s time had had the technology that we have now?

THIRD CONDITIONAL

We use the 3rd Conditional to talk about…



Third conditional4

Read them again:

If governments had invested more money in the space programme, we might have colonized Mars by now.

What would have happened if people in Leonardo da Vinci’s time had had the technology that we have now?

THIRD CONDITIONAL

What is the structure of 3rd Conditional sentences?


Third conditional5

IF + PAST. PERFECT// WOULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

COULD HAVE

MAY HAVE

MIGHT HAVE

(conditional clause) (main clause)

THIRD CONDITIONAL

  • Examples:

  • If astronauts hadn’t dared to travel to space, we wouldn’t have discovered so much about the universe.

  • If Einstein hadn’t been a dreamer, we would never have heard of relativity.

  • If I hadn’t been so nervous at the interview, I would have got the job.



Complete the sentences with the correct

words.

If I phone John later, I _________ ask him about the trip.

What ______ you do if I gave you a free ticket for the match?

John would _____ won the match if he hadn’t made so many mistakes.

Hurry up! We’ll miss the train _____ we run as fast as we can.

If Sarah _______seen the accident, she would have called the police.


Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in brackets.

Tom is very short but he loves basketball. If he ____ (be) taller he ____ (be) a great player.

You’ve got to send all these letters today! Wow! If you ____ (give) me a few, I ___ (put) them in envelopes for you.

I’m tired and hungry. If you ___ (see) a good place to stop, we ____ (take) a break.

If I ____ (have) a million dollars, I ___ (not do) I _____ (not do) a day’s work again!


Read the answers and write questions using the prompts brackets.

  • you / go shopping / I / write a list for you?

    _____________________________________

    Of course I will. What do you need?

    2. Patrick / help me / I / have any problems?

    _____________________________________

    I’m sure he would. He’s very helpful.

  • Sarah / lose / your watch / you / be upset?

    _____________________________________

    Of course I would. It’s an expensive watch.

    4. they / come to the concert / I / buy the tickets?

    _____________________________________

    I think they probably will. They like jazz.

    5. You / give me some money / I / tidy my room?

    _____________________________________

    No, I won’t. It’s your room!


Read the situations and complete the sentences brackets.

  • They missed the start of the film!

    If Jim had arrived earlier,…

    2. Sue went out.

    Sue would probably have watched TV…

    3. Scientists haven’t invented humanoid robots yet.

    If scientists had tried harder,…

  • Colin didn’t come with us.

    Colin would have enjoyed the play…


Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb given.

Emma is so rude! People _____ (like) her a bit more if she ____ (say) such horrible things.

If I ______ (can / run) the race again, I ____ (use) different tactics. But it’s too late now.

Silvia was nervous at the job interview. If she ____ (not be) so nervous, she ____ (get) it.

Nicola was working when the accident happened. If she ____ (stay) at home that day, she _____ (not be) injured.

Unless you ____ (have) a credit card, you ____ (not be able to) buy a ticket online.


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