Reproduction in angiosperms
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Reproduction in Angiosperms . IB Topic 9.3.1-9.3.3. Reproduction in flowering plants . Flowering plants contain their reproductive organs in the flower Flowers are often hermaphrodite structures  both male and female parts . Draw and Label … .

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Reproduction in angiosperms

Reproduction in Angiosperms

IB Topic 9.3.1-9.3.3

Reproduction in flowering plants
Reproduction in flowering plants

  • Flowering plants contain their reproductive organs in the flower

  • Flowers are often hermaphrodite structures  both male and female parts

Draw and label
Draw and Label …

  • A diagram showing the structure of a dicotyledonous animal pollinated flower

  • Sepal, petal, anther, filament, stigma, and ovary

  • See Figure 10.27 (Clegg)

Parts of the flower
Parts of the flower

  • Sepals:

    • Collectively called the calyx

    • Enclose the flower in the bud and are usually small, green, and leaf like

  • Petals:

    • Collectively called the corolla

    • Often colored and conspicuous (may attract insects and other animals)

  • Stamens:

    • The male part of the flower

    • Consist of anthers (housing pollen grains) and the filament (stalk)

  • Carpels:

    • The female part of the flower

    • There may be one or many & they may be fused together or free standing

    • Each carpel consists of an ovary and a stigma (which receives pollen)

Addressing some vocabulary
Addressing some vocabulary …

  • Pollination: is the transfer of pollen from a mature anther to a receptive stigma

    • The pollen may come from the anthers of the same flower or flowers of the same plant

      • Self pollination

    • Or, the pollen may come from flowers on a different plant of the same species

      • Cross pollination

So how is that pollen transferred
So, how is that pollen transferred?

  • Typically by insects and wind

    • Insect pollinated plants typically produce nectar which attracts insects to the flower

  • Although in some species, pollen can be transferred by:

    • Birds

    • Bats

    • Running water

What comes after pollen transfer
What comes after pollen transfer … ?


    • Can only occur after pollen has landed on the stigma and has germinated there

    • Fertilization is the fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote

What s double fertilization
What’s double fertilization?

  • The pollen grain produces a pollen tube, which grows down between the cells of the style and into the ovule

  • The pollen tube delivers two male nuclei

    • One fuses with the egg

    • The other fuses with another nucleus  triggers the formation of the food store for the developing embryo

How are seeds formed and dispersed
How are seeds formed and dispersed?

  • Seeds develop from the fertilized ovule

  • After fertilization:

    • The zygote grows by mitotic division (embryonic root, stem, and cotyledon)

    • As the seed matures, the outer layers become the protective seed coat (testa) and the whole ovary develops into the fruit.

    • The water content of the seed decreases

    • The seed moves into a dormancy period

The seed
The Seed

  • The seed is a form in which the flowering plant may be dispersed

  • Seed dispersal is the carrying of the seed away from the vicinity of the parenting plant

  • Wind, animals, water, and explosive mechanisms help disperse seeds